What is Detailed Design and Engineering

What is Detailed Design and Engineering?

Detailed design and engineering is a process which covers conceptual design, embodiment design and detail design. When performed professionally, the detail design engineering eventually results in a well designed solution.

Phase 1: Conceptual design

Phase One of detailed design and engineering is the conceptual design phase in which drawings are the main output. The drawings produced are often quite simple ideas with little detail, but the aim of the conceptual phase is to commit ideas to paper.

Phase 2: Embodiment phase

The Embodiment phase of the detailed design and engineering process initiates with the concept and blends it into a workable system that can be further developed. During this phase, engineers will typically follow a framework of clarity, simplicity and safety in achieving the design goal.

Phase 3:Detailed design

This is the phase where the design is refined and plans, specifications and estimates are created. Detailed design include outputs such as 2D and 3D models, P & ID’s, cost build up estimates, procurement plans etc. This phase is where the full cost of the project is identified.

Steps covered in detailed design & engineering:

  • Purchasing of equipment, main and bulk.
  • Thermal rating of heat exchangers.
  • Development of Piping and Instrument Diagrams released for construction.
  • Development of detailed piping drawings, including isometrics and stress calculations.
  • Development of detailed drawings related to instrumentation, electrical facilities and civil works.
  • Management of vendor drawings.
  • Cost and schedule control.
  • Start-up procedures.

Importance of Detailed design engineering in India

Over the years Academia and practical application have proven that detailed design and engineering is the key phase in which a project’s costs are defined and set.

The fact that detailed design and engineering process has a strong impact on the overall project cost it is also the stage in which the most cost saving can be made. Equally if the phased process described above is done poorly it can have a major negative impact on the overall project success.
It is truly said that “after all, 70% of a product’s total cost is determined by its design, and that cost includes material, facilities, tooling, labour, and other support costs.”

Success Factors for Detailed design & Engineering:

Often the breadth of scope of a detailed design & engineering project is so vast that no single manager, engineer, operator or scientist has the knowledge to provide the overall detailed design and engineering solution. A high experienced company with top leadership is the key to a successful detailed design & engineering operations. Detailed design ensures that the overall design solution satisfies the projects objective.
Taking a real life scenario, if the goal of a project includes the need to generate energy, a mechanical design engineers input may be to recommend a piston or turbine.

Likewise, An electrical design engineers input is required to generate solar power and a chemical design engineer’s input is required to execute a reaction which would provide exothermic or endothermic energy dependent on the need.

Obviously not all types of energy creation would be suitable for every project. In this example, as in many other instances, it is therefore necessary for all elements of the problem to be considered and the most suitable decided upon during the build up of the detailed design and engineering solution.

For successful detailed design and engineering, there is often the need for someone to take control of the various stakeholders and manage them. Often a project manager will be appointed to bring all the interested parties together and work towards a common goal which will result in a full detailed design and engineering solution.
There are many frameworks that a detailed design & engineering company will adopt in reaching the detailed design and engineering phase of a project. In essence each of them takes the idea or concept that solves a problem from a coarse and rough plan/ design to one that is fine and detailed and solves the problem.

The skill of detailed design is to estimate what it is you think is reasonably required and keep refining to ensure that the plan you settle with fits the bill.

Plant Design

Plant design & engineering

From conducting Feasibility studies, FEED / Basic & Detail engineering during the engineering phase to providing field engineering services during construction & commissioning, a plant design & process engineering company & its services should span across the entire life cycle of projects.
Typical list of services covered under plant design & engineering include:

  • Conceptual and Techno-Economic Feasibility Studies
  • FEED & Basic Engineering
  • Pre-bid / Proposal Engineering
  • Preparation of Process Packages
  • Technology and Process Licensor Selection
  • Detailed Design & Engineering
  • Procurement & Construction Support
  • Field Engineering
  • De-bottlenecking studies and Trouble Shooting
  • Laser Scanning and 3D modeling
  • As-Built documentation
  • Decommissioning Studies

A company involved in process management & plant engineering carries out all the above activities. All the phases have to be carefully managed starting from Engineering Execution Strategy the FEED and defining the project baseline standards by establishing the codes to and procedures to be able to set Engineering Audit.

A plant design & engineering company has to maximize energy output and reduce LCOE. Since every project is different, Project specific factors such as the local irradiance, weather, soil, wind, and topography must be taken into account for the design, layout, technology selection, and system configuration.

By utilizing the plant design & engineering company’s industrial applications, facility owners will be able to more efficiently implement and execute the challenging plant design management processes.
Why Panorama as your plant design & engineering firm?

Panorama’s Plant Engineering team includes highly experienced engineers in the design and maintenance of industrial processing plants.

Our primary customer groups are those who are in the business of processing, refining, handling, manufacturing or treating petrochemicals, gases, water, waste, bulk materials, minerals, food products or manufactured products for use in other processes or for sale to others.

If you are looking to either expand your business, increase production, reduce bottlenecks, manufacture new products, improve efficiency, upgrade to new technologies, refurbish or repair – Panorama’s offering ranges from machine engineering and finite element analysis to fully integrated, multi-discipline industrial plant design.
Panorama utilises the latest 3D modelling software for each phase of project design development, from conceptual to definitive design, right through to the production of documentation for construction.

Panorama also customizes our delivery to suit the industrial plant company’s project development strategy – becoming accustomed to roles in a wide range of contractual relationships including: due diligence, design consultancy, independent inspection, EPCM, EPC, D&C, owner’s engineer, and strategic alliances.

Read more on what are the steps involved in Industrial Plant Design

Plant Design

Plant design & engineering phases

Plant design & Engineering phases:
If you are building or scaling up an industrial plant, the process engineering & process management company adds value to your industrial plant design project by combining plant and unit operation knowledge, with experience in a wide variety of industries and applications. Combining experience in industrial plant design with extensive knowledge of your process, the plant design engineering company should develop a solution that meets your budget and timeline.

Panorama’s engineering and fabrication expertise is coupled with a unique modular approach. From equipment selection to construction management, coordinating the entire scope of the project is a complex process in which we excel. From piping specifications on every P&ID to managing subcontractors, Panorama’s highly experienced engineers & leadership ensure every detail meets or exceeds your needs.
Panorama’s modular design approach saves an average of 24% time compared to traditional construction schedules. Your plant will make product sooner, and overall costs will be reduced.

STEP 1: Front-end Engineering for Industrial Plant Design


To initiate, the plant design engineers will fully extract the project scope, discuss potential challenges, and create a comprehensive project schedule up-front. This is a critical first step in developing your plant.
Most companies provide a basic quotation that doesn’t ensure project success. An ideal plant design & engineering company believes engineering detail is most important in the beginning of the project. Spending essential time up-front to provide accurate preliminary pricing and a design you can be confident with is the first priority of a industrial plant design & engineering company.

Typically, companies offer three levels of front-end engineering, with each step requiring more engineering but also returning increasingly accurate numbers. Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Quotes include:

1.  Basic project scope
2.  Boundary limits
3.  +/- 50% ROM quote
2.  Refined Quotation’s
1.  +/- 15-5% estimate
2.  Project timeline
3.  Basic P&ID’s
4.  Equipment, instrument, and valve list based on budgetary quotes
3.  Fixed Bid Quotes
1.  A firm price to deliver the project (fixed bid price)
2.  Project timeline
3.  Basic P&ID’s
4.  Equipment, instrumentation and valve list based on specific details
5.  Quotation peer review
6.  Technical review
7.  Additional customer specified documents

STEP 2:  Detailed Design


The first part of detailed design includes a tightening of the numbers and scope of your project. One fixed bid price has been reached, the following begins:

  • Re-evaluation for further time/cost savings
  • Set key project milestones and dates

Finalize modular industrial plant design including:

  • Process automation
  • Mechanical and structural design
  • PFD’s
  • P&ID’s
  • Footing details
  • Shipment constraint planning
  • 2D and 3D models
  • CAD system development
  • Any process modeling that must be completed (ex. ASPEN HYSYS)
  • Additional drawing development
  • Auxiliary views
  • Detailed elevation drawings
  • Detailed plan drawings
  • General equipment and arrangement drawings
  • Isometric drawings

STEP 3: Equipment Procurement for Industrial Plant Design

Once the plant design engineers complete detailed engineering, the equipment is ordered for your project. Equipment with long lead times, or key to project milestones, is ordered first. Equipment is selected upon lowest total lifetime cost, as opposed to lowest upfront cost.

SIDE-STEP: Process Safety & HAZOP Studies

If your process requires any safety study, (HAZOP for instance) they will be completed during design. The timing depends on your availability and the information needed to complete the design.

Step 4: Industrial Plant Construction


Industrial plant construction happens in a state-of-the-art fabrication plant. A compressed build timeline, higher quality construction and lower total modular fabrication costs are direct outcomes of the controlled, production-style environment. Parallel field upgrades happen simultaneously to industrial plant construction without interfering with each other, since plants should be constructed in shop as modules while site-upgrades happen at your manufacturing facility.


Step 5: Installation and Commissioning
Once off-site industrial plant construction is complete, modules are fully FAT tested and then shipped to your site for installation. Process experts install your new production plant and make sure it is fully integrated, both mechanically and electrically, into your facility. Process hookups, functional testing and the punch-list are completed and resolved. A full fledged training to your plant operators on the full system is provided.


HAZOP Training

As discussed in our previous article – HAZOP study in India | HAZOP consulting services India | Process safety design; The HAZOP methodology is a well established technique used throughout industry for hazard identification and risk assessment. HAZOP was originally conceptualized in the 1960’s by ICI and training/guidance on its use was initially published in the 1970’s following the Flixborough disaster where an inadequately designed modification led to a large vapour cloud explosion killing 28 people.

We, at Panorama Consulting with our highly experienced team of HAZOP leaders have conducted thousands of HAZOP studies for many clients across many industrial sectors.

It is a universally recognized fact that for any Company to succeed it must take a rigorously proactive approach to risk management. Over the last few years Companies and a number of Countries legislators have been focusing on Process Safety as a method to reduce the risks posed by hazardous industries.

Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) is recognized as being a critical tool in the implementation of a successful risk management system.

HAZOP Training:
It is important that HAZOP training for top leaders in companies to cover following aspects of process safety management:

  • How to apply advanced risk assessment techniques
  • Mechanics of dispersion, fire, explosion and toxic releases
  • The concept of Quantified Risk Assessment “QRA”
  • Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study methodology
  • HAZOP team leadership

HAZOP Training Techniques & HAZOP Objectives:

  • Understand the concepts of Risk Assessment and Risk Management
  • Understand the estimation and evaluation of risks – Qualitative, Semi-Quantitative and Quantified Risks
  • Techniques for Hazard Identification and Analysis – Check-Lists, Risk Profiling, HAZOP, FMEA and Task-Based Risk Assessment
  • Cause-Consequences Analysis – The Role of Fault Trees and Event Trees in Accident Prevention
  • Understand HAZOP studies their benefits and their short comings
  • Understand the requirements of a Team Leader or Facilitator, scribe and team members during HAZOP studies
  • Be able to facilitate a HAZOP study

Introduction to Risk Assessment

  • The concepts of hazards, risk and risk assessment
  • Methods for risk evaluation
  • Integrating risk assessment within Risk Management
  • Qualitative, Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Risk Assessment methodologies

Risk Assessment Techniques: HAZOP

  • Introduction to hazards identification and analysis techniques
  • Techniques for hazard identification and analysis – HAZOP
  • Where and when to use HAZOP and the requirements for a successful HAZOP study
  • Team composition for HAZOP studies
  • Guide words and process variables used for HAZOP studies
  • Syndicate exercise – application of HAZOP to relevant processes

HAZOP Leadership Techniques

  • HAZOP team leader/facilitator requirements
  • HAZOP scribe requirements
  • Facilitating HAZOP studies, do’s and don’ts
  • Information required to allow successful HAZOP studies
  • Case study where each delegate has the opportunity to facilitate a HAZOP meeting
  • Review of commercial software used for HAZOP and Management of Change ‘MOC’

Consequence Analysis

  • Theory behind fire, explosion and toxic dispersion modeling utilized in Quantitative Risk Assessments
  • Types of fires and their effects on people and equipment
  • Types of explosions and their effects on people and equipment
  • Review of software available for consequence calculations

The Role of QRA

  • Introduction to Quantified Risk Assessment “QRA”
  • The role of Event Tree Analysis in scenario development
  • The role of Fault Tree Analysis for multi-causation analysis
  • Applications for ETA and FTA
  • Failure data for use in QRA’s
  • Societal Risk and Individual Risk
  • Review of software available for Quantitative Risk Assessments

The entire HAZOP process typically starts with the engineering drawing(s) at the BEGINNING of the process, the feeds being the raw materials. Often as many as 3 or 4 P&ID’s may be tabled at one session to enable the HAZOP team to identify where streams are coming from on one or more P&ID’s and where they are going to on the next one or two P&ID’s.
Companies should consider the following activities to help them make the most effective use of the products of a study:

  1. Prioritize the analysis results
  2. Document the hazard evaluation study
  3. Develop a management response to the study
  4. Resolve the actions resulting from the risk management decision making process in a timely manner.

Sometimes, it is difficult to rank the safety improvement suggestions from Hazard Analysis studies because the techniques generally do not provide a definitive, quantitative characteristic which is useful for ranking utility & purposes.

A frequent problem faced by the users of the HAZOP study results is that the HAZOP company – study team creates a long list of items for management to consider implementing in order to improve safety. In cases where this occurs, decision makers can rightfully wonder whether these results are of any practical use to them. They may ask, “Where do we start?” or “Which are the most important suggestions?”

To help management make these decisions, an efficient HAZOP consulting company & its team should give them as much information as possible. One way to do this is to rank the results of the HAZOP study. Ranking the safety improvement recommendations from the study allows management to prioritize the immediate efforts for resolution and follow-up.

The two most common criteria for ranking the safety improvement recommendations of HAZOP study are:

  • The analysts’ understanding of the risk posed
  • The analysts’ perception of the risk reduction

The first criterion ranks items based on their associated level of risk – it makes sense to resolve the most important problems first. The second criterion ranks proposed improvements by how much they will benefit the facility, not necessarily on how serious the problem is.

“Hazops are only as good as the knowledge and experience of the people present. If they do not know what goes on, the hazop cannot bring out the hazards.”

Looking for a HAZOP training company specialized in HAZOP analysis & HAZOP processes? If you’re looking for a HAZOP consulting company who can help you manage all your process safety services & risk management, get in touch with the HAZOP experts now & receive a free consultation.

HAZOP Procedure

A HAZOP procedure is an examination of an existing or planned operation (work) procedure to identify hazards and causes for operational problems, quality problems, and delays.

  • Can be applied to all sequences of operations
  • Focus on both human errors and failures of technical systems
  • Best suited for detailed assessments, but can also be used for coarse preliminary assessments
  • Flexible approach with respect to use of guide-words

HAZOP Procedure

Breakdown of operation (work) procedure to suitable steps

  • Define intention of each step
  • Establish boundary conditions else as conventional Process HAZOP
  • Apply guide-words to intention and boundary conditions for each step.

HAZOP Guidewords:

Guideword Meaning
No (not, none) None of the design intent is achieved
More (more of, higher) Quantitative increase in a parameter
Less (lessof, lower) Quantitative decrease in a parameter
As well as (more than) An additional activity occurs
Part of Only some of the design intention is achieved
Reverse Logical opposite of the design intention occurs
Other than (other) Complete substitution – another activity takes place


Alternative Guidewords:

Guideword Meaning
Unclear Procedure written in confusing and ambiguous fashion
Step in wrong place Procedure will lead to actions out of correct sequence or recovery failure
Wrong action Procedure action specified is incorrect
Incorrect information Information being checked prior to action is incorrectly specified
Step omitted Missing step, or steps too large, requiring too much of the operator
Step unsuccessful Step likely to be unsuccessful due to demands on operator
Interference effects from others Procedure-following performance likely to be affected by other personnel carrying out simultaneous tasks (usually when co-located)


Alternative Guidewords/Deviation:

Guideword Meaning
Time Too early, too late
Sequence Wrong sequence, omissions, wrong action
Procedure Not available, not applicable, not followed
Measurement Instrument failure, observation error
Organization Unclear responsibilities, not fitted for purpos
Communication Failed equipment, insufficient/incorrect information
Personnel Lack of competence, too few, too many
Position Wrong position, movement exceeding tolerences
Power Complete loss, partly lost
Weather Above limitations – causing delayed operation


HAZOP Reporting:

A typical HAZOP report consists of:


  1. Introduction
  2. System definition and delimitation
  3. Documents (on which the analysis is based)
  4. Methodology
  5. Team members
  6. HAZOP results

– Reporting principles

– Classification of recordings

– Main results

HAZOP Review:

Review meetings should be arranged to monitor completion of agreed actions that have been recorded. The review meeting should involve the whole HAZOP team. A summary of actions should be noted and classified as:

  • Action is complete
  • Action is in progress
  • Action is incomplete, awaiting further information

HAZOP Results:

What results to expect?

  • Improvement of system or operations
  • Reduced risk and better contingency
  • More efficient operations
  • Improvement of procedures
  • Logical order
  • Completeness
  • General awareness among involved parties
  • Team building

The purpose of this is to investigate how the system or plant deviates from the design intent and create risks for personnel and equipment and operability problems. HAZOP studies have been used with great success within chemical and the petroleum industry to obtain safer, more efficient and more reliable plants.