Hygienic System Design for Food Processing Facilities

The demand for freshly made food is increasing on the rise. This demand has led to the development of methods that use minimal preservatives and additives. The use of lesser preservatives lead to decreased shelf life of food and makes them more susceptible to contaminants. Product contamination occurs not only at the equipment level but also at factory level.

Incorporation of hygienic design into your food processing facility can prevent development of pests and microbiological niches; avoid product contamination with chemicals e.g., cleaning agents, lubricants, peeling paint, etc. and particles e.g., glass, dust, iron, etc.; facilitate cleaning and sanitation and preserve hygienic conditions both during and after maintenance. The infrastructure of a facility must be designed in a manner to avoid contamination of food products.

To ensure safe food and adequate sanitation programs, the facility and surroundings in which foodprocessing and handling operations are conductedmust be designed and constructed with sanitarydesign principles in mind.

The layout of a food facility must be adapted to the hygienic requirements of a given procedure, packaging or storage area.  The interior of the manufacturing plant must be outlined with the goal that the stream of material, work force, air and waste can precedein the right way. As they end up consolidated into sustenance items, crude materials and fixings should move from the dirty to the ‘clean’areas. However, the flow of food waste and discarded outer packaging materials should be in the opposite direction. Before building begins, reproduction of the stream of individuals, materials, items and waste can enable the originator to decide the most fitting spot for introducing the procedure gear and where the procedure and utility funneling ought to enter the procedure region.Indeed, even the recreation of support and cleaning tasks can be helpful to decide the most fitting production line design.

To spare building and redesign costs, potential issues can be understood before the beginning of development. Moreover, in the advancement of high cleanliness territories, computational liquid elements can help recreate and envision expected airflows.

To meet a conceivable increment of handling activities inside the sustenance plant later on, the building and its nourishment preparing emotionally supportive networks ought to be outlined so they can either be extended, or another building or potentially utilities can be included. Oversizing the primary utility frameworks is a typical practice. On the off chance that conceivable, the processing plant ought to likewise be made versatile (i.e., the capacity to change the generation zone for other assembling purposes) and flexible (i.e., the capacity to do distinctive things inside a similar room).

To exclude flooding and the section of rodents, industrial facilities should be worked at a larger amount than the ground outside. Outside entryways shouldnot open specifically into generation zones, and windows should be missing from nourishment preparing regions. The quantity of stacking docks should not be negligible and be 1– 1.2 m over the ground level. Ideally, outside docks ought to have an overhanging lip, with smooth and uncluttered surfaces that are inclined somewhat far from the working to energize water run-off. Regions underneath docks ought not give harborages to bugs, ought to be cleared and should deplete enough. To give security to items and crude materials, docks can be protected from the components by rooftops or coverings. Be that as it may, these structures can turn into a genuine sanitation issue because of perching or settling of flying creatures. Winged creature spikes or nets can take care of that issue. To keep the section of creepy crawlies, dock openings ought to be given plastic strips or air drapes, and outer lighting to enlighten these industrial facility doors ought to be put in areas from the manufacturing plant building. Meddling bugs can in any case be pulled in and slaughtered inside the sustenance processing plant by deliberately situated bright (UV) light electric lattices or sticky pasteboard traps.

Many food manufacturers only make use of the classic food preservation approach to control food safety. Clean sustenance industrial facility configuration begins with the choice of a fitting area and the utilization of a sterile building idea that keeps the passage of irritations. The industrial facility format must allow the right stream of materials, waste, air and staff without trading off nourishment wellbeing and in addition the establishment of clean zones that offer maximal assurance to the sustenance created. Process hardware and process and utility channeling must be composed from nourishment review materials that are perfect with the sustenance item delivered and the cleaning specialists and disinfectants connected to purify the generation condition. To stay away from the presentation of new contaminants, gear and funneling must be cleanly coordinated inside the production line’s premises. Dividers, roofs and floors must have a fitting complete the process of, lighting must give adequate enlightenment and channels should ensure legitimate seepage to encourage clean-ing and to keep up sterile conditions inside the plant. The point of this article is to fill in as a prologue to legitimate clean sustenance office plan.

CIP System and Its Operations

The operation of the CIP system requires the control of several conditions, i.e., the fluid flow rates and velocities, temperatures, cleaning times and the concentrations of the cleaning chemicals (detergents, caustic soda). Systems in the pharmaceutical and bio-pharmaceutical industries use higher velocities for process piping. In the case of tanks, the rates of flow of either water or cleaning solution are largely determined by the size of the tank, as well as the number and the properties of the spray devices.

These gadgets arrive in an assortment of plans. The customary spray ball is generally used and gives directional streams of water or cleaning arrangement from little, static spouts. Rotational gadgets give round shower designs and direct impingement spray devices present high-weight streams at low streams, turning through 360˚ The impingement spray gadgets speak to a contrasting option to the expulsion of soils or stores by falling water or cleaning arrangement that course dmown the sidewalls of the tanks or vessels. The temperature of the CIP procedure may fluctuate from 135 to 175˚F and control is normally critical. The essential heat transfer requests are met either by joining heat exchangers into the CIP framework, or by direct infusion of steam. Chemicals might be added using peristaltic, pneumatic stomach and additionally more exact metering pumps. Groupings of the cleaning solutions are observed and controlled by the estimation of the pH or electrical conductivity of the solution.

The CIP procedure includes an arrangement of cycles that incorporates an underlying and last deplete step, a pre-flush, wash and post-flush. The span of the flush and wash cycles fluctuate from 5 minutes to 60 minutes. In the pharmaceutical, bio-pharmaceutical, dairy and food industries, the CIP procedure may incorporate a purify cycle to lessen the levels of bacterial contamination. This cycle essentially utilizes watery arrangements of solid oxidants, for example, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, chlorine dioxide and other chlorine-containing compounds.

At the point when a sanitize cycle is incorporated, thorough last flush cycles are required to maintain a strategic distance from erosion of the stainless steel tanks, vessels and process funneling, because of the nearness of hints of the solid oxidant, especially the chlorine containing mixes or chloride ions.
To efficiently drain process equipment and process piping, the system design must allow the fluids to flow out. Avoid sections of the piping and equipment in which fluid flow is restricted. Split flow designs also adversely affect the flow of solution through a piping system. Any problem areas should be identified and the piping modified or an appropriate cleaning method developed. The pre-rinse uses recycled water to flush out loosely adhering particulates and soil. This water is often flows directly to the drains as it leaves the CIP system. Depending on the nature of fouling and deposits, the number of chemicals for the wash cycle is used. The post-rinse cycle provides the final flush for the system. The effluent from this cycle is then discharged to the drains and directed to a tank. The effluent may flow to the drain or recovery points under gravity, but some CIP systems include return pumps or eductor devices.

Clean in Place Systems

To improve product quality in manufacturing systems, Clean-in-place (CIP) technology offers significant advantages. Right from efficient and reliable cleaning of process equipment and piping to lower costs, they have much to offer. The controls provide variety of cycle times, temperatures, composition and concentration of cleaning solutions.  In order to reduce costs and control waste disposal these systems include current recycling and regeneration technologies.

The automatic, reproducible and reliable delivery of cleaning solutions improves both product quality and plant hygiene. The ability to clean a processing system, incorporating tanks, pumps, valves, filters, heat exchange units and process piping, significantly reduces cleaning costs. It also helps minimize the handling of chemicals to provide a safer environment for plant personnel. CIP systems must be included in the design of any new process system.

CIP systems have several designs. The “single-pass” and the “recirculating” configurations are often utilized in the processing industries, since both require minimal capital investment. They usually have a small footprint and are flexible, in that the unit can readily adjust to a range of cleaning protocols. However, the cost for the chemicals, water and steam and for disposal of the wastewater are higher than for other designs.

The food industry usually favors a ‘re-use design’ that provides recycling of the water and regeneration of the cleaning chemicals. These systems have a larger footprint and are at greater risk of cross-contamination.  It also lacks flexibility i.e. a single temperature and single concentration of cleaning solution is used for the whole process system.

The pharmaceutical and bio-pharmaceutical industries prefer to use a multi-tank configuration. They have independent, stainless steel tanks that hold water of different quality, e.g., deionized water (DI), hot or cold water for injection (WFI) and water from reverse osmosis units (RO). These multi-tank systems are operated as if they were single-use systems, the tanks being drained between subsequent programs to minimize cross-contamination. This system is capable of circulating small volumes of water at relatively high rates.

A single use unit developed for the use in dairy and food processing industries has recently found application in selected pharmaceutical industries. These systems reduce the consumption of water and chemicals.