Design For Safety Equipment and design

Design for safety

System safety

System Safety is the application of engineering and management principles, criteria, and techniques to optimize all aspects of safety within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost throughout all phases of the system life cycle. It is a planned, disciplined and systematic approach to preventing or reducing accidents throughout the lifecycle of a system

Primary concern is the management of risks through:

  • Risk identification, evaluation, elimination & control through analysis, design & management

History of system safety

Design Safety arose in the 1950s after dissatisfaction with the fly-fix-fly approach to safety. Design Safety was first adopted by the US Air Force. It led to the development of mil-std-882 Standard Practice for System Safety (v1 1960s). The basic concept of System was rather than assigning a safety engineer to demonstrate that a design is safe, safety considerations were to be integrated from the design phase of the project.

Founding principles

Safety should be designed in

  • Critical reviews of the system design identify hazards that can be controlled by modifying the design
  • Modifications are most readily accepted during the early stages of design, development, and test
  • Previous design deficiencies can be corrected to prevent their recurrence

Inherent safety requires both engineering and management techniques to control the hazards of a system

  • A safety program must be planned and implemented such that safety analyses are integrated with other factors that impact management decisions

Safety requirements must be consistent with other program or design requirements

  • The evolution of a system design is a series of tradeoffs among competing disciplines to optimize relative contributions
  • Safety competes with other disciplines; it does not override them

The main principles of Safe design are:

  • Inherent safety
  • Safety factors
  • Multiple independent safety barriers

Inherently safe design 

Inherent: belonging to the very nature of the person/thing (inseparable). It is recommended that Inherent safe design should be the first step in safety engineering. Change the process to eliminate hazards, rather than accepting the hazards and developing add-on features to control them, unlike engineered features, inherent safety cannot be compromised.

Minimize inherent dangers as far as possible by considering the following:

  • Potential hazards are excluded rather than just enclosed or managed
  • Replace dangerous substances or reactions by less dangerous ones (instead of encapsulating the process)
  • Use fireproof materials instead of flammable ones (better than using flammable materials but keeping temperatures low)
  • Perform reactions at low temperatures & pressures instead of building resistant vessels

Safety Factors

Factors of safety (FoS), also known as safety factor (SF), is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads. Essentially, the factor of safety is how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load. Safety factors are often calculated using detailed analysis because comprehensive testing is impractical on many projects, such as bridges and buildings, but the structure’s ability to carry load must be determined to a reasonable accuracy.

When the material used is under strength, factor of safety covers uncertainties in material strength. It covers poor workmanship. It also covers unexpected behavior of the structure and natural disasters. Stresses are produced which may be very high. Factor of safety may take care of these loads during construction. Presence of residual stresses and stress concentrations beyond the level theoretically expected.

Multiple Independent Safety Barriers

Safety barriers are arranged in chains. The aim is to make each barrier independent of its predecessors so that if the first fails, then the second is still intact, etc. Typically, the first barriers are measures to prevent an accident, after which follow barriers that limit the consequences of an accident, and, finally, rescue services as the last resort.

The basic idea behind multiple barriers is that even if the first barrier is well constructed, it may fail, due to unforeseen reason, and that the second barrier should then provide protection. The major problem in the construction of safety barriers is how to make them as independent of each other as possible. If two or more barriers are sensitive to the same type of impact, then one and the same destructive force can get rid of all of them in one swoop.

These three principles of engineering safety – inherent safety, safety factors, and multiple barriers are quite different in nature, but they have one important trait in common. They all aim at protecting us not only against risks that can be assigned meaningful probability estimates, but also against dangers that cannot be probabilized, such as the possibility that some unforeseen even triggers a hazard that is seemingly under control. It remains, however, to investigate more in detail the principles underlying safety engineering and, not least, to clarify how they relate to other principles of engineering design.

 

 

Waste Minimization

Waste Minimization

Waste minimization is a practice or process through which the quantity of generated waste is reduced with the main objective of producing the least of unwanted by-products through the optimal use of raw materials, water and energy which in turn reduces the amount of waste entering the environment. It supports any company’s aim for a “Clean technology” production which means full utilization of resources, cost savings in storage, treatment & disposal of generated waste by reducing its volume and its strength or concentration, improves environmental compliance, ensures profit, and promote corporate good image.

For any company which is competing in today’s world, efficient and “clean” processes have become a necessity which not only involves maximization of all the resources and utilities, but also the minimization of waste products. This results in a more cost effective production and plant operation. This activity of waste minimization can be classified under Corporate Social Responsibility Activities and thus, greatly help in boosting a company’s reputation in the society due to which it should be one of the prime focal points for any company’s top management.

The process of waste management in a company can be initiated through the formation of a team/committee consisting of people within the company who are solely dedicated to reduction of waste management within the company. This team then conducts various audits to track the amount of waste being generated through various operations and accordingly comes up with a detailed plan to minimize it. This includes reduction in effluent production, cutting down costs by conservation of water & energy and even resource optimization to minimize wastage. These plans, once approved by the top management of the company, are communicated throughout the company and are encouraged to implement them for minimum waste generation. The progress in tracked through keeping a tab on the amount of waste being generated and comparing pre-implementation and post implementation waste generation and required improvements are made in the plan. This creates an efficient feedback loop for progress tracking and also helps with the enforcement of the plan.

Techniques for Efficient Waste Minimization:

Waste as defined (in the Local Order) is “any matter whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive which is discharged, emitted or disposed in such volume or manner as to cause an alteration to the environment as well as any otherwise discarded, rejected, abandoned, unwanted or surplus matter that can be recycled, reprocessed, recovered or purified by a separate operation or process from that which was produced and even any matter prescribed to be waste and as defined by a competent department.” A waste, therefore, is an excess material resulting from any activities which is discharged as reject and unwanted or any surplus material whether as a total useless matter or those that can be rendered useful again by recycling, treatment or recovery thru a different process from which it was originally produced. Waste materials generated from manufacturing, processing & services from any industrial and commercial activities can be identified and grouped as follows:

  • Off-specification raw materials (contaminated, expired or outdated)
  • Off-specification spoiled products unfit for use or consumption
  • Contaminated products, including spills and leakages
  • Spent auxiliary materials (catalysts, solvents, filters, absorbents, etc.)
  • Undesirable by-products from maintenance activities (oils, solvents, etc.)
  • Undesirable products resulting from commissioning, start-up or process upset
  • Process waste water, including cooling & rinse water contaminated with chemicals
  • Air emission from the process, including fugitives & dust
  • Solid off-cuts, trimmings and excess materials
  • Used container & packaging materials

Ever since the Kyoto Protocol has been put into effect and widely accepted by countries all over the world, the organizations within these countries have become more vigilant about the emissions as well as managing the waste generated which in turn has led to a greater shift in focus for these organizations towards their CSR initiatives and has amplified the need of Waste Management tremendously.

Continuous Distillation Column Design

Procedure for Continuous Distillation Column Design

Distillation is used to separate components in a feed mixture based upon their relative boiling points. A simple, continuous distillation column can make the separation between two components into two product streams. In multi-component systems, the two main components to be separated are designated as the light and heavy keys. The light key is the more volatile component in greater purity in the top product stream, and the heavy key is the less volatile component in greater purity in the bottom product stream.

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

The starting point upon which all column design is based is to accurately determine the relative volatility of the key components to be separated. Using a mass and energy balance simulation program. The user must set up the basis of the simulation by selecting an appropriate fluid package and the components present in the feed. Activity coefficients, estimated by the program or provided by the user, are used to relate non-ideal component interactions.

Column Operating Objectives

The first step in column design is specifying the column operating objectives. These are defined by a primary product composition and an optimal recovery of the product from the waste, recycle or less important by-product stream. These specifications should be in terms of the heavy key impurity in the top stream and the light key impurity in the bottom stream.

Operating Pressure

Once the top and bottom stream compositions are specified, the dew point of the top stream and the boiling point of the bottom stream may be determined at various pressures. An operating pressure should be selected that allows acceptable temperature differences between available utilities because the overhead vapor must be condensed and the bottom liquid reboiled.

When possible, atmospheric or pressure operation of the column is preferred in order to avoid requiring a vacuum system. However, another consideration is component heat sensitivity, which may require lower pressure operation to avoid fouling, product discoloration or decomposition. Often the relative volatility is also improved at lower pressures.

R/Dmin & Nmin and Feed Stage Estimation

Using the simulation program, shortcut procedures based upon total reflux operation allow the minimum reflux ratio (R/Dmin) and minimum number of ideal separation stages (Nmin) to be determined. Using an actual reflux ratio of 1.2 times the minimum reflux ratio will allow an optimal number of stages to be estimated as well as an appropriate feed stage.

Rigorous simulation of the distillation at a given feed rate and composition may now be accomplished by specifying the following: top and bottom product compositions, number of stages, feed stage, and top and bottom pressure.

Parametric cases of this simulation should be used to verify the estimated number of stages and feed location. Add and subtract stages from both the stripping and rectifying section of the column. Do this until the required reflux ratio becomes approximately 1.2 times the minimum reflux ratio, or the trade off between utility usage and the number of stages appears optimal for the specific column. As more total stages are used, the required reboiler duty will decrease until there are diminishing returns.

Diameter and Height of the Column

At this point, the distillation process is well defined, leaving the column diameter and height to be determined. The chosen design case from the simulation program provides the internal liquid and vapor flows and their physical properties for every stage of the column. The column diameter is chosen to provide an acceptable superficial vapor velocity, or “Fs factor”. This is defined as vapor velocity (ft/sec) times square root of vapor density (lb/ft3), and liquid loading defined as volumetric flow rate (gal/min), divided by the cross sectional area of the column (ft2). The column internals can be chosen as either trays or packing. Trayed columns must avoid flooding, weeping and downcomer backup. Packed columns must avoid flooding, minimum surface wetting and mal-distribution.

Project managers should understand and determine these five key design elements for the projects success. Cost, chemical interactions and equipment needs change in a non-linear fashion, as increased output is required. Qualified engineers should consider these critical steps for distillation column design.

Graph for Pinch Point Analysis

Pinch Point Analysis

Pinch Point Analysis is a systematic process design methodology consisting of a number of concepts and techniques that ensure an optimal use of energy. The Pinch is characterized by a minimum temperature difference between hot and cold streams and designates the location where the heat recovery is the most constraint.

The fundamental computational tool is the Problem Table algorithm. This tool allows the identifications of the Pinch, as well as of targets for hot and cold utilities.

The net heat flow across Pinch is zero. Consequently, the system can be split into two stand-alone subsystems, above and below the Pinch. Above the Pinch there is need only for hot utility, while below the Pinch only cold utility is necessary. For given ΔTmin the hot and cold utility consumption identified so far becomes Minimum Energy Requirements (MER). No design can achieve MER if there is a cross-pinch heat transfer.

The partition of the original problem in subsystems may introduce redundancy in the number of heat exchangers. When the capital cost is high, it might be necessary to remove the Pinch constraint in order to reduce the number of units. The operation will be paid by supplementary energetic consumption, which has to be optimized against the reduction in capital costs.

The result is that heat recovery problem becomes an optimization of both energy and capital costs, constraint by a minimum temperature approach in designing the heat exchangers. Stream selection and data extraction are essential in Pinch Analysis for effective heat integration.

The key computational assumption in Pinch Point Analysis is constant CP on the interval where the streams are matched. If not, stream segmentation is necessary

The counter-current heat flow of the streams selected for integration may be represented by means of Composite Curves (CC). Another diagram, Grand Composite Curve (GCC) allows the visualization of the excess heat between hot and cold streams against temperature intervals. This feature helps the selection and placement of utilities, as well as the identification of the potential process/process matches.

The synthesis of a Heat Exchanger Network consists of three main activities:

  • Set a reference basis for energy integration, namely:

-Minimum Energy Requirements (MER)

-Utility selection and their placement

-Number of units and heat exchange area

-Cost of energy and hardware at MER

  • Synthesis of heat exchanger network (HEN) for minimum energy requirements and maximum heat recovery. Determine matches in subsystems and generate alternatives.
  • Network optimization. Reduce redundant elements, as small heat exchangers, or small split streams. Find the trade-off between utility consumption, heat exchange area and number of units. Consider constraints

The improvement of design can be realized by Appropriate Placement and Plus/Minus principle. Appropriate Placement defines the optimal location of individual units against the Pinch. It applies to heat engines, heat pumps, distillation columns, evaporators, furnaces, and to any other unit operation that can be represented in terms of heat sources and sinks.

The Plus/Minus principle helps to detect major flow sheet modifications that can improve significantly the energy recovery. Navigating between Appropriate Placement, Plus/Minus Principle and Targeting allows the designer to formulate near-optimum targets for the heat exchanger network, without ever sizing heat exchangers.

Pinch Point principle has been extended to operations involving mass exchange. Saving water can be treated systematically by Water Pinch methodology. Similarly, Hydrogen Pinch can efficiently handle the inventory of hydrogen in refineries. Other applications of industrial interest have been developed in the field of waste and emissions minimization. The systematic methods in handling the integration of mass-exchange operations are still in development. In this area the methods based on optimization techniques are very promising.

RO/DI Water Systems

RO/DI Water Systems

RO/DI stands for Reverse Osmosis and Deionization. The product is a multi-stage water filter, which takes in ordinary tap water and produces highly purified water.

Tap water often contains impurities that can cause problems. These may include phosphates, nitrates, chlorine, and various heavy metals. Excessive phosphate and nitrate levels can cause an algae bloom. Copper is often present in tap water due to leaching from pipes and is highly toxic to invertebrates. An RO/DI filter removes practically all of these impurities.

There are typically four stages in a RO/DI filter:

  • Sediment filter
  • Carbon block
  • Reverse osmosis membrane
  • Deionization resin

If there are less than four stages, something was left out. If there are more, something was duplicated.

The sediment filter, typically a foam block, removes particles from the water. Its purpose is to prevent clogging of the carbon block and RO membrane. Good sediment filters will remove particles down to one micron or smaller.

The carbon, typically a block of powdered activated carbon, filters out smaller particles, adsorbs some dissolved compounds, and deactivates chlorine. The latter is the most important part: free chlorine in the water will destroy the RO membrane.

The RO membrane is a semi-permeable thin film. Water under pressure is forced through it. Molecules larger/heavier than water (which is very small/light) penetrate the membrane less easily and tend to be left behind.

The DI resin exchanges the remaining ions, removing them from the solution.

There are three types of RO membrane on the market:

  • Cellulose Triacetate (CTA)
  • Thin Film Composite (TFC)
  • Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC)

The difference between the three concerns how they are affected by chlorine: CTA membranes require chlorine in the water to prevent them from rotting. TFC membranes are damaged by chlorine and must be protected from it. PVC membranes are impervious to both chlorine and bacteria.

Reverse osmosis typically removes 90-98% of all the impurities of significance to the aquarist. If that is good enough for your needs, then you don’t need the DI stage. The use of RO by itself is certainly better than plain tap water and, in many cases, is perfectly adequate.

RO by itself might not be adequate if your tap water contains something that you want to reduce by more than 90-98%.

A DI stage by itself, without the other filter stages, will produce water that is pretty much free of dissolved solids. However, DI resin is fairly expensive and will last only about 1/20th as long when used without additional filtration. If you’re only going to buy either a RO or a DI, it would be best to choose the RO, unless you only need small amounts of purified water.

Duplicating stages can extend their life and improve their efficiency. For example, if you have two DI stages in series, one can be replaced when it’s exhausted without producing any impure water. If you have both a 5-micron sediment filter and a 1-micron filter, they will take longer to clog up. If there are two carbon stages, there will be less chlorine attacking the TFC membrane. Whether the extra stages are worth the extra money is largely a matter of circumstance and opinion.

RO/DI capacities are measured in gallons per day (GPD), and typically fall within the 25-100 GPD range. The main difference between these units is the size of the RO membrane. Other differences are (a) the flow restrictor that determines how much waste water is produced, (b) the water gets less contact time in the carbon and DI stages in high-GPD units than low-GPD units, and (c) units larger than 35 GPD typically have welded-together membranes.

As a result of the membrane welding and the reduced carbon contact time, RO membranes larger than 35 GPD produce water that is slightly less pure. This primarily affects the life of the DI resin.

Most aquarists won’t use more than 25 GPD averaged over time. If you have a decent size storage container, that size should be adequate. A higher GPD rating comes in handy, however, when filling a large tank for the first time or in emergencies when you need a lot of water in a hurry.

The advertised GPD values assume ideal conditions, notably optimum water pressure and temperature. The purity of your tap water also affects it. In other words, your mileage will vary.

An RO filter has two outputs: purified water and wastewater. A well-designed unit will have about 4X as much wastewater as purified water. The idea is that the impurities that don’t go through the membrane get flushed out with the wastewater.

There is nothing particularly wrong with the wastewater except for a slightly elevated dissolved solid content. It may actually be cleaner than your tap water because of the sediment and carbon filters. Feel free to water your plants with it.

What is BIM?

The Handbook of BIM (Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks & Liston 2011) defines, “With BIM (Building Information Modeling) technology, one or more accurate virtual models of a building are constructed digitally. They support design through its phases, allowing better analysis and control than manual processes. When completed, these computer-generated models contain precise geometry and data needed to support the construction, fabrication, and procurement activities through which the building is realized.”

BIM or Building Information Modeling is a process for creating and managing information on a construction project across the project lifecycle. One of the key outputs of this process is the Building Information Model, the digital description of every aspect of the built asset. This model draws on information assembled collaboratively and updated at key stages of a project. Creating a digital Building Information Model enables those who interact with the building to optimize their actions, resulting in a greater whole life value for the asset.

B is for Building.

The key point to remember here is that “building” doesn’t mean “a building.” BIM can be used for so much more than designing a structure with four walls and a roof. This preconceived notion of “building” comes from its roots—in an etymological sense, it quite literally means “house.”

In order to get the true gist of BIM, however, it helps to think of the word “building” in terms of the verb “to build.”

BIM is a process that involves the act of building something together, whether it relates to architecture, infrastructure, civil engineering, landscaping or other large-scale projects.

I is for Information.

And that information is embedded into every aspect of your project. This is what makes BIM “smart.”

Every project comes with a staggering amount of information, from prices to performance ratings and predicted lifetimes. It tells your project’s life story long before the ground is ever broken and it will help track potential issues throughout your project’s lifetime. BIM is a way to bring all of these details into one place so it’s easy to keep track of everything.

M is for Modeling.

In BIM, every project is built twice—once in a virtual environment to make sure that everything is just right and once in a real environment to bring the project to life.

This step is the overview of every other aspect of the building and its information. It provides the measure or standard for the building project—an analogy or smaller-scale representation of the final appearance and effect. It will continue to model this representation throughout the building’s lifespan.

This model can become a tool for the building owner’s reference long after construction is completed, helping to inform maintenance and other decisions. It’s also the step that will help to sell a concept while condensing all of those other layers of information that show the building’s every detail.

How can BIM help you?

BIM brings together all of the information about every component of a building, in one place. BIM makes it possible for anyone to access that information for any purpose, e.g. to integrate different aspects of the design more effectively. In this way, the risk of mistakes or discrepancies is reduced, and abortive costs minimized.

BIM data can be used to illustrate the entire building life-cycle, from cradle to cradle, from inception and design to demolition and materials reuse. Spaces, systems, products and sequences can be shown in relative scale to each other and, in turn, relative to the entire project. And by signalling conflict detection BIM prevents errors creeping in at the various stages of development/ construction.

What is a BIM object?

A BIM object is a combination of many things

  • Information content that defines a product
  • Product properties, such as thermal performance
  • Geometry representing the product’s physical characteristics
  • Visualisation data giving the object a recognisable appearance
  • Functional data enables the object to be positioned and behave in the same manner as the product itself.

What is the future of BIM?

The future of the construction industry is digital, and BIM is the future of design and long term facility management; it is government led and driven by technology and clear processes; and it is implementing change across all industries. As hardware, software and cloud applications herald greater capability to handle increasing amounts of raw data and information, use of BIM will become even more pronounced than it is in current projects.

BIM is both a best-practice process and 3D modeling software. By using it, designers can create a shared building project with integrated information in a format that models both the structure and the entire timeline of the project from inception to eventual demolition.

It enables architects and engineers alike to work on a single project from anywhere in the world. It condenses a plethora of information about every detail into a workable format. It facilitates testing and analysis during the design phase to find the best answer to a problem.

It makes for easier design, simpler coordination between team members and easier structure maintenance across the entire built environment—and this is just the beginning.

Cleanroom

Typically used in manufacturing or scientific research, a cleanroom is a controlled environment that has a low level of pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes, aerosol particles, and chemical vapors. To be exact, a cleanroom has a controlled level of contamination that is specified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a specified particle size. The ambient air outside in a typical city environment contains 35,000,000 particles per cubic meter, 0.5 mm and larger in diameter, corresponding to an ISO 9 cleanroom which is at the lowest level of cleanroom standards.

Cleanroom Overview

Cleanrooms are used in practically every industry where small particles can adversely affect the manufacturing process. They vary in size and complexity, and are used extensively in industries such as semiconductor manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, biotech, medical device and life sciences, as well as critical process manufacturing common in aerospace, optics, military and Department of Energy.

A cleanroom is any given contained space where provisions are made to reduce particulate contamination and control other environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity and pressure. The key component is the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter that is used to trap particles that are 0.3 micron and larger in size. All of the air delivered to a cleanroom passes through HEPA filters, and in some cases where stringent cleanliness performance is necessary; Ultra Low Particulate Air (ULPA) filters are used.

Personnel selected to work in cleanrooms undergo extensive training in contamination control theory. They enter and exit the cleanroom through airlocks, air showers and/or gowning rooms, and they must wear special clothing designed to trap contaminants that are naturally generated by skin and the body.

Depending on the room classification or function, personnel gowning may be as limited as lab coats and hairnets, or as extensive as fully enveloped in multiple layered bunny suits with self-contained breathing apparatus.
Cleanroom clothing is used to prevent substances from being released off the wearer’s body and contaminating the environment. The cleanroom clothing itself must not release particles or fibers to prevent contamination of the environment by personnel. This type of personnel contamination can degrade product performance in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industries and it can cause cross-infection between medical staff and patients in the healthcare industry for example.

Cleanroom garments include boots, shoes, aprons, beard covers, bouffant caps, coveralls, face masks, frocks/lab coats, gowns, glove and finger cots, hairnets, hoods, sleeves and shoe covers. The type of cleanroom garments used should reflect the cleanroom and product specifications. Low-level cleanrooms may only require special shoes having completely smooth soles that do not track in dust or dirt. However, shoe bottoms must not create slipping hazards since safety always takes precedence. A cleanroom suit is usually required for entering a cleanroom. Class 10,000 cleanrooms may use simple smocks, head covers, and booties. For Class 10 cleanrooms, careful gown wearing procedures with a zipped cover all, boots, gloves and complete respirator enclosure are required.

Cleanroom Air Flow Principles

Cleanrooms maintain particulate-free air through the use of either HEPA or ULPA filters employing laminar or turbulent air flow principles. Laminar, or unidirectional, air flow systems direct filtered air downward in a constant stream. Laminar air flow systems are typically employed across 100% of the ceiling to maintain constant, unidirectional flow. Laminar flow criteria is generally stated in portable work stations (LF hoods), and is mandated in ISO-1 through ISO-4 classified cleanrooms.

Proper cleanroom design encompasses the entire air distribution system, including provisions for adequate, downstream air returns. In vertical flow rooms, this means the use of low wall air returns around the perimeter of the zone. In horizontal flow applications, it requires the use of air returns at the downstream boundary of the process. The use of ceiling mounted air returns is contradictory to proper cleanroom system design.

RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION

In today’s industrial age, where manufacturing processes are highly crucial and a synonym of development and growth, the need to use resources effectively and efficiently has become necessary. The continuous growth of industries has led to development of highly efficient or leaner processes which focus on minimum wastage and maximum utilization of the available resources through various technologies developed overtime. The use of robots and automating the processes in order to eliminate human error and increase efficiency has been adopted by almost every industry today which has further been facilitated by the Internet of Things (I0T) in developing smarter processes.

Utility optimization not only consists of handling resources in a smart manner, but also optimizing the path or manner in which they are handled. Adjusting the placement of machines as well as defining the flow of resources throughout the shop floor is also an integral part of the utility optimization process. An efficient flow ensures an efficient execution of process and minimum wastage of time and resources. This is usually done through the use of process flow charts do determine process steps as well as Pareto charts to determine the importance of every resource in terms of its usage and need in every process.

In order to execute resource optimization and make sure that it is continuously being carried out, energy audits and water audits can be done which track the energy needs of an organization and track the water consumption by the organization respectively. The audits not only provide feedback about the status of optimization within the organization, but also help in tracking the development in this area and accordingly set targets. Even though these audits are a bit time consuming but they are highly necessary as they help the organization stay aligned with their set targets.

Optimization of resource usage not only decreases the amount of waste generated, but also leads to greater profits and creates opportunities for recycling and reusing the wasted resources. In a lot of cases, resource optimization leads to a reduction in carbon footprint which is vital due to the currently degrading environmental conditions. Since India agreed to ratify the second commitment period (2013-2020) of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of Greenhouse Gases and thus reduce the carbon footprint, the need for cutting emissions and correspondingly minimizing waste through resource optimization has gained more importance. The rising trend of green technologies has facilitated in optimization as well as cutting down on energy usage and reducing emissions.

The whole world is currently progressing at an unbelievable rate and the environment is getting affected due to that very progress Resource optimization, hence, has become necessary not only for generating greater profits and minimizing wastage of resources, but also for sustainability.  “Recycle and Reuse” has become the motto for every major organization and new ways to optimize resource usage are constantly being researched and put into use. Since the progression of technology is inevitable, there will always be a great need for effective resource optimization processes which contribute to both- organization’s profits as well as sustainability.

Project manager having a meeting with employees

Project Management

Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI) defines project management as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project.” Project management is the discipline of using established principles, procedures and policies to manage a project from conception through completion. It is often abbreviated as PM.

Project management oversees the planning, organizing and implementing of a project. A project is an undertaking with specific start and end parameters designed to produce a defined outcome, such as a new computer system. A project is different from ongoing processes, such as a governance program or an asset management program.

The project management plan is expected to effectively and efficiently guide all aspects of a project from start to finish, with the ideal goal of delivering the outcome on time and on budget. A project plan often begins with a project charter, and it is expected to identify potential challenges in advance and handle any roadblocks as they arise in order to keep the project on schedule.

The process of directing and controlling a project from start to finish may be further divided into 5 basic phases:

Project conception and initiation- An idea for a project will be carefully examined to determine whether or not it benefits the organization. During this phase, a decision making team will determine whether the project is feasible and whether they have the resources to take on the project.

Project definition and planning- A project plan, project charter and/or project scope may be put in writing, outlining the work to be performed. During this phase, a team should prioritize the project, calculate a budget and schedule, and determine what resources are needed.

Project launch or execution- Resources’ tasks are distributed and teams are informed of responsibilities. This is a good time to bring up important project related information.

Project performance and control- Project managers will compare project status and progress to the actual plan, as resources perform the scheduled work. During this phase, project managers may need to adjust schedules or do what is necessary to keep the project on track.

Project close- After project tasks are completed and the client has approved the outcome, an evaluation is necessary to highlight project success and/or learn from project history.

Projects and project management processes vary from industry to industry; however, these are more traditional elements of a project. The overarching goal is typically to offer a product, change a process or to solve a problem in order to benefit the organization.

Responsibilities of a project manager

Business leaders recognize project management as a specific function within the organization and hire individuals specifically trained in this discipline — i.e., project managers — to handle their organization’s project management needs.

Project managers can employ various methods and approaches to run projects, generally selecting the best approach based on the nature of the project, organizational needs and culture, the skills of those working on the projects, and other factors.

Managing a project involves multiple steps. Although the terminology for these steps varies, they often include:

  • Defining project goals;
  • Outlining the steps needed to achieve those goals;
  • Identifying the resources required to accomplish those steps;
  • Determining the budget and time required for each of the steps, as well as the project as a whole;
  • Overseeing the actual implementation and execution of the work; and
  • Delivering the finished outcome.

As part of a strong project management plan, project managers implement controls to assess performance and progress against the established schedule, budget and objectives laid out in the project management plan. This is often referred to as the project scope.

Because projects often require teams of workers who do not typically work together, effective project management requires strong communication and negotiation skills. Project managers also need to work closely with the multiple stakeholders who have interests in any given project, another area where strong communication and negotiation skills are essential.

Software Validation

Software Validation

Validation is a critical tool to assure the quality of computer system performance. Computer system software validation increases the reliability of systems, resulting in fewer errors and less risk to process and data integrity.
Computer system validation also reduces long term system and project costs by minimizing the cost of maintenance and rework.

Software Validation commences with a user requirement document (URS). URS is prepared to describe the critical functionalities those are required for our analysis. It is essential that the document is properly scoped in order that the procurement, installation, commissioning, validation, user training, maintenance, calibration and cleaning tasks are all investigated and defined adequately.

To scope and define an adequate validation procedure the URS has to be detailed sufficiently for various assessments to be made. The main assessment that concerns with qualification documentation is the risk assessment. This assessment is only concerned with ensuring that the degree of validation that is proposed; is compliant with the regulatory requirements.

So at this early stage it is required to execute a Validation Risk Assessment protocol against the end user’s requirements. This step is purely to ensure that the more obscure pieces of ancillary equipment and support services are fully understood and their requirement investigated, priced and included in the final issue of the URS; which will be sent out with the Request to Tender. This is an essential stage if the URS is to accurately define what depth and scope of validation is appropriate for the verification that the software will deliver all the requirement detailed in the URS.

The outcome of the Validation Risk Assessment (VRA) drives a split in software validation documentation scope, if the VRA categorizes the software validation as requiring Full Life Cycle Validation (FLCV); then a considerable amount of the software validation effort is put into establishing how the software originated, was designed and developed, in order to establish that its basic concept and development can be considered robust, sound and in accordance with best practices.

The original development plans; code reviews, methods reviews and testing plans must be available to enable this software validation documentation to be executed successfully. Once this proof of quality build is established, validation then follows a more convention path in inspections and verifications.

Software that is not classified as requiring FLCV treatment does not require this depth of verification into quality build history and is validated mainly by the more convention path in inspections and verifications.

Dynamic Testing

Dynamic testing verifies the execution flow of software, including decision paths, inputs, and outputs. Dynamic testing involves creating test cases, test vectors and oracles, and executing the software against these tests. The results are then compared with expected or known correct behavior of the software. Because the number of execution paths and conditions increases exponentially with the number of lines of code, testing for all possible execution traces and conditions for the software is impossible.

Static Analysis

Code inspections and testing can reduce coding errors; however, experience has shown that the process needs to be complemented with other methods. One such method is static analysis. This somewhat new method largely automates the software qualification process. The technique attempts to identify errors in the code, but does not necessarily prove their absence. Static analysis is used to identify potential and actual defects in source code.

Abstract Interpretation Verification

A code verification solution that includes abstract interpretation can be instrumental in assuring software safety and a good quality process. It is a sound verification process that enables the achievement of high integrity in embedded devices. Regulatory bodies such as the FDA and some segments of industry recognize the value of sound verification principles and are using tools based on these principles.