Good Automated Manufacturing Practice for Pharmaceutical Industries

The Good Automated Manufacturing Practice (GAMP) Forum was founded in 1991 by pharmaceutical industry professionals in the United Kingdom to address the industry’s need to improve comprehension and evolving expectations of regulatory agencies in Europe. The organization also sought to promote understanding of how computer systems validation should be conducted in the pharmaceutical industry.

GAMP rapidly became influential throughout countries as the quality of its work was recognized internationally. Over time, GAMP has become the acknowledged expert body for addressing issues of computer system validation.

GAMP’s guidance approach defines a set of industry best practices to enable compliance to all current regulatory expectations. More than simply a strict compliance standard, GAMP is a guideline for life sciences companies to use for their own quality procedures. As a result, it can be tailored to a number of computer system types.

Computer system validation following GAMP guidelines requires users and suppliers to work together so that responsibilities regarding the validation process are understood. For users, GAMP provides a documented assurance that a system is appropriate for the intended use before it goes live. Suppliers can use GAMP to test for avoidable defects in the supplied system to ensure quality product leaves the facility.

The GAMP framework addresses how systems are validated and documented. Companies do not need to follow the same set of procedures and processes of a GAMP framework to achieve validation and qualification levels that satisfy inspectors. Instead, GAMP examines the systems development lifecycle of an automated system to identify issues of validation, compliance and documentation.

As a voluntary program, GAMP offers both challenges and benefits. The top three challenges in implementing GAMP are establishing procedural control, handling management and change control, and finding an acceptable standard among the existing variations.

Establishing procedural control is a challenge in using GAMP guidelines because new frameworks may be necessary to gauge the validity of systems. Most pharmaceutical companies have already established a baseline that adheres to standards and regulations that exist today, but they may not have a procedure to check the processes that are in place. This could cause resistance among software developers who may prefer not to work within the confines of specifications and procedures developed by others. Specifications and procedures developed by previous software developers may hinder ways to adjust computer systems, but varying interpretations of GAMP guidelines allow for multiple solutions.

Another hurdle is change control. In the development or modification of computer systems, companies with even the highest of standards can suffer setbacks along the systems development lifecycle. Sometimes minor tweaks by the software programmer may cause breakdowns after validation changes have been implemented. Internal processes and procedures must be established to guard against these occurrences.

Effective documentation management is fundamental for compliance. Any inaccuracies or missing information renders all other efforts moot. Moreover, implementing a formal document management application may be cost-prohibitive for some organizations. Some companies simply use what’s in the GAMP checklists to evaluate their systems. Today’s environment demands a thorough process to show validation.

The benefits of utilizing the GAMP approach for both users and suppliers include:

  • Improved understanding of the subject with the introduction of common terminology
  • Reduced cost and time to achieve compliant systems
  • Reduced time and resources for revalidation or regression testing and remediation
  • Reduced cost of qualification
  • Enhanced compliance with regulatory expectations
  • Established responsibility for all involved parties

When the FDA introduced its current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for the 21st century initiative, companies shifted their approach to validation. Formerly, they only had to heed a set of rules that accounted for every piece of equipment that was used. Now they can take a risk-based approach to validation by addressing safety, efficacy and quality in the product considerations. This enables the industry to place its investments where it makes the most sense. The onus ultimately falls on manufacturers to accept greater responsibility to validate their systems having the attendant benefits of cost and time to market savings.

GAMP helps provide a quality product from the manufacturer, and helps to limit the pharmaceutical industry’s culpability by ensuring proper steps were placed to deliver a quality product through validated systems. By incorporating input from the full spectrum of stakeholders, fine-tuning and further development of the process is geared towards benefiting the life sciences industry and the general consumer market.

The tools exist for companies to take the steps needed to reap the benefits of validation. Understanding an early adoption of GAMP can increase a company’s competitive position, especially with the implementation of new technologies. By staying aware of technological innovations, companies are able to increase efficiency, minimize risks and reduce costs.

What is Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)?

A piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is a drawing in the process industry. A P&ID shows all piping, including the “physical sequence of branches, reducers, valves, equipment, instrumentation and control interlocks.” A P&ID is used to operate the process system, since it shows the piping of the process flow along with the installed equipment and instrumentation.

P & IDs play a key role in maintaining and modifying the process they describe, because it is important to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, including how these systems connect. In terms of processing facilities, a P&ID is a visual representation of key piping and instrument details, control and shutdown schemes, safety and regulatory requirements, and basic start-up and operational information.

A P&ID should include the following:

  • Instrumentation and designations
  • Mechanical equipment with names and numbers
  • All valves and their identifications
  • Process piping, sizes, and identification
  • Vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers, and swaggers
  • Permanent start-up and flush lines
  • Flow directions
  • Interconnections references
  • Control inputs and outputs, interlocks
  • Interfaces for class changes
  • Computer control system
  • Identification of components and subsystems delivered by the process

A P&ID should NOT include the following:

  • Instrument root valves
  • Control relays
  • Manual switches
  • Primary instrument tubing and valves
  • Pressure temperature and flow data
  • Elbow, tees and similar standard fittings
  • Extensive explanatory notes

A P&ID involves various symbols to represent all of the included parts, components, and information. Their symbology is defined on separate drawings referred to as “lead sheets” or “legend sheets.” Lead sheets should be customized to each company’s process plants, though in general, the P&IDs are based on a core set of standard symbols and notations. The most important part of the lead sheets is that they are organized logically so that it is possible to easily locate the symbols and tags. While it’s a good practice to have lead sheets for the major equipment in a factory, it may not be necessary because this major equipment already should be tagged and named with general specifications for identification purposes.

Letter and number combinations appear inside each graphical element and letter combinations are defined by the ISA standard. Numbers are user assigned and schemes vary. While some companies use sequential numbering, others tie the instrument number to the process line number, and still others adopt unique and sometimes unusual numbering systems. The first letter defines the measured or initiating variables such as Analysis (A), Flow (F), Temperature (T), etc. with succeeding letters defining readout, passive, or output functions such as Indicator (I), Recorder (R), Transmitter (T), etc.

Below are some piping and instrumentation diagram symbols with letters.

Because a P&ID contains such important information, it is critical to the workings of the process industry that the process plants apply tags or labels to keep track of all of the equipment, piping, valves, devices, and more. Those labels must match the symbology and should not fail, so that the plant’s operations run smoothly and efficiently. That’s why the unique identifiers involved in the P&ID, tagging, and labeling process are critical.

The P&ID and tags ensure that even collections of similar objects have unique tags so that identical valves, pumps, instruments, etc., can be uniquely identified
The P&ID and tags make it possible to assemble the process plant in a structured manner so that additions, deletions, changes, etc., are possible from a whole-unit scale down to a single valve on a pipe at any location.

The P&ID and tags contain scores of metadata that provides, or links to, more details including specifications, materials of construction, data sheets, etc.
Best Practices for Tagging Equipment When Considering P&ID.

Using a numeric-only system for tagging equipment is the best way for process industries to avoid the problems with labeling by abbreviated names. Structured tag systems are more intuitive for every team that deals with the equipment, including developers, operators, and maintenance. The equipment tag format should be a series of three numbers, beginning with an area number, followed by an equipment type code, and then ending with a unique sequence number.

Area numbers represent an area that may be determined by the physical, geographical, or logical grouping location by the plant site
Equipment types are fairly straightforward, but if equipment has multiple functions, users should determine how to select the most suitable equipment type code.

Sequence numbering is the consecutive numbering of similar equipment in any given area, and it’s important to being the sequence at 01 so that all equipment can have it’s own sequence number.

Energy Audit – An Overview

Energy Audit is the first step in Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency Projects for Industrial Plants. Energy Audit is a periodic exercise undertaken by a plant to assess its energy consumption and identify opportunities for Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency. It also helps plant personnel in modernizing the plant with new technological solutions. It benefits plants cut down production costs.

In India, Energy Audit is quite popular in an Industrial or Commercial Facility. Many companies have realized the potential of energy saving in their plant. However one must realize that Energy Audit is only the first step in the direction of energy efficiency and energy conservation. The recommendations made as part of the energy audit have to be implemented to achieve the energy saving targets.

The energy saving recommendations doesn’t require much investment. In some high cases, the investment may be higher. The plant then takes up the investments in a phase-wise manner, which result in delayed energy saving for the plant. In fact the plant may never take some of the recommendations up. This renders the entire energy audit exercise futile.

Energy Audit works for every single Plant or Commercial Facility, as there is always scope for Energy Optimization through Energy Conservation & Energy Efficiency. Every plant goes through some changes over a period of time. Moreover an external Energy Audit team works across departments and brings in rich experience gained from Energy Audit of several plants. This not only results in gaining fresh perspective of Energy saving possibility by an external team also results in bench-marking based on similar parameters.

Energy Audit gives a positive orientation to Preventive Maintenance, Safety and Quality Control programs thereby improving the overall efficiency and output of existing system.

Nearly all the Industrial Units and Commercial Complexes have a potential to save 10-15% on Energy Bills and additional savings in Thermal Energy.

The evident reason why a plant goes for an Energy Audit is the saving of energy. This saving translates into monetary saving and hence can have a direct impact on profitability of a Company. It is also a step towards sustainability.

However, Energy Audits should look at a more comprehensive approach than just reducing cost. Industries should focus more on reducing their carbon footprint as necessitated by Governing Environmental Laws. Energy Audits must go beyond the conventional approach and adopt newer technologies for Green Power Generation.

With increased environmental awareness the pressure on Industries is mounting to reduce their Carbon footprint by adopting Greener Methods wherever possible. In such as scenario Energy Audit would play a crucial role in offering Industries a comprehensive approach towards a Greener Plant.

There is no specific answer as to how much energy a plant could save post an Energy Audit. An estimate could certainly be provided and in all cases Energy Audit could prove to be useful and economically viable. This is especially true in the present day scenario when Energy costs are ever rising and are expected to rise further.

Each Industrial Plant must carry out Energy Audits for reducing their energy usage by adopting energy conservation and energy efficiency measures.

Fire Protection and Safety

Irrespective of its occupancy status, a fire can happen at any time and any place.
Fire has the potential to cause harm to its occupants and severe damage to property. Fire doesn’t only interrupt the whole process of manufacturing and production but also can cause major damage to the building and plant. Much work will be required in order to restore the entire production process.

Successful prevention of fire depends solely o the management who must survey the operation of the business and determine where the loss potential lies.

Inadequately maintained machines can be fire prone. The overheating of bearing, due to insufficient lubrication or the presence of dust, and heat caused by friction are common causes of fire. Frequent inspection and regular maintenance will reduce risk and make the general tidiness of premises easier to achieve.

Major fires start in storage area and warehouses than production areas. Poorly stored goods, even though they are not flammable, may help to spread fire and hinder fire fighters gaining access to the seat of the fire or reduce the effectiveness of sprinkler systems. Goods tidily stored with gangways may help to inhibit the spread of fire.

Fire Safety Audit

Fire has been rated as the 5th largest risk in the Indian Industry. Electrical defaults are the major causes of fire in India. Fire Safety Audit is found to be an effective tool for assessing fire Safety standards of an organization. In other words, it is aimed to assess the building for compliance with the National Building Code of India, relevant Indian Standards and the legislations enacted by State Governments and Local Bodies, on fire prevention, fire protection and life safety measures.

Though fire safety audit is found to be an effective tool for assessing fire safety standards of an occupancy, there is no clear cut provisions in any of the safety legislations in India, regarding the scope, objective, methodology and periodicity of a fire safety audit. Therefore, Fire Safety Audit should be made mandatory for all over India and the work should be entrusted to independent agencies, which have expertise in it. It is reasonable to have a fire safety audit in every year.

Clean agent suppression systems

Clean agent fire suppression systems make the use of inert gases and chemicals in extinguishing a fire.They are also known as gaseous fire suppression. In these systems, fire is suppressed manually or automatically by reducing heat rather than reducing oxygen, reducing fuel or preventing the chain reaction effect of fire. These systems work on a total flooding principle where the agent is applied in a three dimensional method within the enclosed space to deliver a concentrated, highly focused dose of fire suppression.

Clean agent systems are able to suppress fires without causing additional damage unlike water. This drastically reduces the costs incurred for repairs and replacements. This makes these systems the fire suppression systems of choice for commercial and public enterprises that want fast, effective fire suppression that minimizes damage to structures, electronics and other assets.

The agents are non-toxic, they cause no breathing problems for people and won’t obscure vision in an emergency situation.

Automatic Sprinkler Systems

Sprinkler systems are among the most useful tools in firefighting. Automatic sprinklers often are one of the most important fire protection options. The successful application of sprinklers is dependent upon careful design and installation of high quality components by capable engineers and contractors.

A sprinkler system must be installed in compliance with the building’s need. Wet pipe systems offer the greatest degree of reliability and are the most appropriate system type for most heritage fire risks. With the exception of spaces subject to freezing conditions, dry pipe systems do not offer advantages over wet pipe systems in heritage buildings. Preaction sprinkler systems are beneficial in areas of highest water sensitivity. Their success is dependent upon selection of proper suppression and detection components and management’s commitment to properly maintain systems. Water mist represents a very promising alternative to gaseous agent systems.

In India, although there are many rules and regulations, codes and standards related to fire safety they are seldom followed. Laxity in following fire safety measures causes major fires in many buildings. Proper attention must be paid to minimize fire loss because ultimately the community at large has to bear all the losses. There exists large number of different types of firefighting equipment and suppression systems to suit specific requirements. The use of smoke detectors, fire alarms, automatic sprinklers, water mist systems, clean agent suppression system should be encouraged. Above all the success of fire prevention and fire protection mainly depend upon the active co-operation from all personnel.

Signs your construction project is headed towards failure

Chemical and Pharmaceutical Plant Construction projects involve high risks and heavy investments. Sometimes a single risk can manage to blowout your project. At other times, a combination of risks will be the reason for your project failure. One or multiple, either can prove to be fatal for the project and company. It is critical to identify project failure sooner and devise solutions before the risks escalate.

Here’s a list of obstacles that could lead to project failure and solutions on how to overcome them.

  1. Schedule overdue – Scheduling is the first step one takes when working on any project. For any successful project, scheduling needs to be on track. Once the train is off track, your project is bound to suffer. Project leaders must ensure that every schedule is being followed devotedly. In case work deviates from the track immediate measures must be taken to cover for lost time.
  2. Team mismanagement – For a project, the team comprises of experts from varied fields. Architects, maintenance engineers, owners, electricians, plumbers etc. are few of the people that work together on the project. Disagreements and conflicting ideas lead to setbacks in your project. The most effective way to handle these holdups is to evaluate ideas and execute the strategies that are most effective.Project management services should be implemented after thorough analysis.
  3. Budget – While being on schedule is important, managing to be on the stipulated budget is imperative. Spending over the budget can lead to major dents in the financial plan. Project leaders must always be on their toes especially when the budget is skirting towards the warning line.Costs for construction projects are high and involve a lot of risks.
  4. Poor communication – Any project is likely to fail with poor communication. Generally, lower level employees are hesitant to report to upper level management leading to delay in project work. Upper level managers consider it irrelevant to inform employees at the lower level. Communication amongst all levels is vital to ensure that the project is functioning smoothly. The project leader should act as the communicator link between all levels.
  5. Inconsistent management – Project leaders must avoid inconsistency in decision making. When minor plans keep changing course, it will be difficult to meet the goals in time. Leaders have to be firm in their decision-making and must have a foresight for the future. Project management services should be implemented to ensure the success of a construction project.

Every project, no matter how big or small, will face problems at every stage. Good leadership and communication is the glue that will stick your project together in times of failure. A healthy working environment for the employees and strategic approach aid in the long run.
Panorama provides complete project management services right from planning to execution. Every step is supervised under the watchful eyes of experts in the field. With Panorama, your construction project is far from the trenches of failure.

Tips to Hire the best construction contractors in India

Contractors are an individual or companies offering services tied to the development of construction activities, where the contract value and the contract completion time are agreed on by both parties in the form of a mutual signed contract.

Duties and Responsibilities of Contractors

In order to facilitate the activities in the project, the contractor must prepare personnel who will serve in the field, such as manpower, equipment or material. Contractors also ensure implementing the construction project in accordance with regulations and specifications that have been planned.

As the construction project progresses, the contractor shall make a report, be it daily, weekly, monthly or as agreed. This report will track whether the project is going according to the time schedule fixed upon i.e. whether the project is progressing or otherwise not in accordance with the time (time schedule). If it is not in accordance with the time schedules, the contractor has to take steps to fix it.

How to Choose a Good Contractor?

With so many contractors in the local & international markets, it is difficult to choose the right contractor who ensures that processes, quality and schedules are met properly as per the requirements. Therefore, in this article will discuss some things that could be used as a benchmark in choosing a contractor eligible, including:

Select More Than One Alternative Contractor

Generally, having more than one alternative contractor works if you are trying to find a contractor for the first time and are not sure about the contractors work quality, reputation etc. Hence, finding more than one contractor, comparing quotes and possibly having multiple contractors assigned for unique objectives makes the process easier, and risks smaller.

Once the contractor trust is developed, it makes more sense to direct most tasks to a single dedicated contractor to avoid multiple point of contacts, hierarchies etc.

Budget Planning

If possible, you need to make the initial calculations for the costs to be spent, so that you can avoid fraud and can analyze the bid price. The budget plan is important to adjust the construction work if it can be done in accordance with the concept of best work or no adjustment in accordance with the budget.

The Legality of a Clear Contract

Many service contractors exist who do not clear their legality. You need to choose a contractor who has a clear business license, will strive to maintain the quality of its work, as it relates to the credibility or reputation that should be retained. Therefore choose a contractor who has a valid business license.

A Good Source of Recommendations

When we know someone or service users who have used the services of a contractor who wants us to use his services for our project, it is worth looking for accurate information about the results of work. You can ask a client who has been working with the contractor. It would be better if people close to you are recommending the contractor.

Contractors with Skilled Labor

Sometimes contractor focuses only by having the quantity or the number of employees without involving the quality aspect. Choose a contractor who has a good quality of work; which generally comes from the contractors that already has the ability to do his job i.e. an existing portfolio.

Consider the Price Offered

Choose a contractor who offers a reasonable price. That is, do not choose a contractor with a very high price, let alone exceeds our budget. Do not also choose a contractor with the price too low, because it could be that they have miscounted. Worse yet the contractor might be sacrificing work quality and ultimately disappoints you.


A good contractor will be responsible with the results of his work. He will guarantee his work in case of any damage occurrence anytime in the future. The warranty period should be described in the contract that is clear and does not become a problem later on.

It is difficult to find the ideal contractor and in accordance with our wishes. In addition to the tips above, there is one more thing that is important, our communication with the contractor. If communication is maintained smoothly, no matter how severe a problem and the obstacles we may face, it will be easier to find a solution. Therefore, before starting the project, it is better to do careful planning, before we are sorry for acting too quickly without calculations.

How to ensure your Project Meets Your Expectation

If you plan to do a project, you have to make sure that you select the best option of service. In fact, the main task of a project manager is to complete a specific project with the prescribed time and funds. There are many types of factors that could lead to a project being deviated from its original purpose, either because of internal or external factors, but preventive measures can be taken to ensure your project is disturbed as little as possible. This article will explain seven ways to make your project a success.

  1. Make Sure You Have Full Project Details in Advance

The scope of the details of the entire project, with the consent of all stakeholders, is a must. Make sure that important events including temporary, detailed timeline are covered and budget sufficient funds to cover the work required. If you have it all on paper at the beginning of the project, you will have a quality foundation on which you can build.

  1. Set Realistic Expectations

Make sure all the people in the team, including the client, understand the constraints of the project. You can successfully finish the job on time and budget funds that have been provided, as long as there are reasonable expectations. If the expectations are unreasonable to follow, you’re just going to prepare for the failure of the project.

  1. Make Criterion That Can Be Measured and Reported

How do you know whether your project will be successful if you do not have a ‘tool’ to measure success? You will need important events while, especially for jobs that have a long period of time, so you can understand if you remain on the right track or have deviated from the purpose of the project itself.

  1. Choose Proper Team Members and Give Duties with Caution

Collect your human resources, and make sure their skills are in accordance with the roles needed. This is an important first step: If you assign the wrong person at one particular job, you will reduce your chances for success of the project even before the project begins. Make sure every member of the team knows exactly what and when you expect from them, and encourage them to ask questions so that all things that seem ‘fuzzy’ become transparent & clear.

  1. Inspire Your Role as Leader

You are the leader of the project, so make sure you act in the role and do not let the other team members assert their dominance over your position. Your task is to bring the best job from all members of your team, so you are a coach, mentor, and motivator. If needed, do team-building exercises. You also liaison with the client, so communicate internally and externally with accuracy. Be a strong leader and calm down your team if you have disruptions. It is more difficult to become a great leader sometimes when there are big problems. But at the same time your team members really need you, so ensure they are always motivated.

  1. Managing Project Risks

You should know the risks of what will appear when you prepare the project plan, so you have to know the possibilities that will arise for any particular event. You can see when the risk is approaching, so you can take precautions to avoid it, or you can step in with corrective measurements if needed.

  1. Evaluating Project When Finished

Once a project has been completed, it is important to make the post-mortem report, even if it is only for internal purposes. You can find out what is right and what is wrong, and determine what should be done differently, by establishing best practices, which will be best put to use in the near future.

Importance of Smart Construction Project Management in India

Reasons Why You Need Smart Project Management in India

Construction Project Management in India is the application of skills, knowledge, both technically using limited resources to achieve the targets set, in order to get the highest performance, time, quality and optimum safety.

For construction project management in India, a project has limitations with respect to the ultimate goal that has to be achieved. Organizations have to ensure that the eligibility of a smart project management process by focusing on quality, cost, time, safety and health, environmental, resource, risk and information systems.

There are three big things that need to be reviewed in the construction project management in India to manage the course of a project, namely:

  1. Planning

In order to achieve a goal, the project needs a well-planned design. It can be done by providing project goals and objectives while making administration and programs, with the goal to meet all the requirements specified in a time limit, including cost, quality, and safety. Planning a project carried out by conducting feasibility studies, value engineering, planning within the scope of the project management (therein including time, cost, quality, resources, safety and health, the environment, information systems and risk).

  1. Scheduling

Scheduling Project Management is the application of planning by providing knowledge about the schedule and progress of the project plan and includes all existing resources, including costs, equipment and labor, material and timely completion of the project. Scheduling projects is carried out by observing the development of the project with various problems.

Monitoring and updating of processes is always done to produce the right schedules, to fit the project objectives. There are several ways to create a project schedule, the scheduling Linear (vector diagram), curve S (HANUMM Curve), Network Planning, Time BARCHART and duration of action. If an error occurs and there are deviations from the initial plan, people must do corrective action and evaluation of the project, in order to continue to run on the right path.

  1. Control and Project Management

The main objective of the project is to keep the same flow and streamlining of the project by reducing or eliminating any form of deviation that might occur during the execution of development projects. The goal of the project is to empower & control the entire time, quality, cost and safety projects maintained, as well as having the proper criteria as a benchmark. All activities undertaken during the inspection process are controlled; supervised, corrected and are repeated for the project during the implementation process.

Good project management is how to manage and organize a wide range of assets, human resources, time and quality of work of the project, so the project generates maximum quality within the planned time and give effect to the welfare of employees. A project needs a good management process so that each personnel can carry out his job properly in accordance with it & is responsible without pressure from superiors.

The Characteristics of Good Project Management

  1. Rapid development, excellent quality and low price.
  2. Pleasant working atmosphere, the compact and the mutual respect between co-workers, superiors and subordinates.
  3. Manager in project management can act as a leader.
  4. Enjoyment of the rights and responsibilities of employees.
  5. Employee benefits

A properly organized construction project management in India will be able to complete the construction of the project in a much faster time; less than the scheduled time in the contract (worst case it is at least not delayed), in addition to the cost control, so as to obtain the maximum benefit. A robust & strong quality system is also a key project management asset.

The Importance of Planning Safe Project Management

Safety Project Management are integrated processes where individuals as part of an organization are involved to setup a plan, organize, execute and control activities, all of which are directed at targets that have been set and continues over time. Organizations should monitor all these activities which are oriented towards achieving the target. The organization serves as a container for pouring concepts and managing ideas. So it can be said that planning a safe project is a series of responsibilities that are closely related to each other.

Understanding the Project

The project is a group of tasks that needs to be formulated to achieve the stated aim of concrete development and must be completed within a given period using human labor. According to expert research, the project is a combination of various resources gathered in an organization to achieve a certain goal.

Project Management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, ‘tools and techniques’ in project activities so that the requirements and needs of the project are met. The processes of project management can be grouped into five groups, namely: ‘initiating process, planning process, executing a process, controlling process and closing process’.

When compared with the definition of the project, then all ‘other work’ is regarded as a mere routine. A routine work usually takes place in a continuous, repetitive and process-oriented environment.

Understanding Risks

There are many definitions of risk; risk can be interpreted as a form of a state of uncertainty about a situation that will be able to occur with a decision taken based on various considerations at this point.

Risk Management

Risk management is the process of measuring or risk assessment and management strategy development. Strategies that can be taken include moving the risk to another party, avoiding the risk, reducing the negative effects of risks, and accommodating part or all of the consequences of a particular risk. Traditional risk management focuses on the risks incurred by physical or legal causes (such as natural disasters or fires, deaths and lawsuits). Risk management is a series of steps that help software to understand and manage uncertainty.

Examples of Project Management and Risk

Examples of project management are: to build a football stadium, constructing large-scale studies, carrying out organ transplant surgery, post production traffic, or struggling to get an undergraduate diploma in a college.

Personal Protective 11

Personal protective equipment is the last method to try to avoid accidents. The system and recruitment training efforts are just preventive measures and are not completely sufficient to avoid risks. Hence, it becomes a must for a company to provide complete protective equipment for workers. Protective equipment includes:

  • Helmets, which is used to protect the head in case of collision-heavy
  • Earplugs, as a means of ear protection, especially for workers who are in a noisy place,
  • Gloves, these tools are used to protect the hands. Gloves should be made of fabric that is comfortable to wear to prevent workers from impact, scratches, and effects of welding rays.
  • Masks used to protect the face from the influence of light.
  • Long shirts, clothes that have good radiation absorption. Usually, these are made of rubber lead.

Conduct Strict Supervision

Supervisor’s job is to check, measure, and evaluate, to conduct follow-up related to the problems found. In few development projects, labor inspectors are assigned who monitor whether employees are executing jobs based on the SOP that has been made. The use of protective equipment, working hours, consumption, etc. could affect the optimization and safety of workers.



How to Reduce Risks of Accident in Project Engineering?

In the implementation of development projects, of course, we want to keep things running without any problems. We need to understand potential problems and early on try to anticipate them. One problem that is very vulnerable is that of accidents, which in certain contexts even endangers the lives of workers due to less attention paid in preventing accidents.

For construction services, giving services to certain development projects must have an agile process whose primary focus is to maintain the safety of workers project. A professional construction services company would need to have a futuristic shape effort that ensures construction projects can be completed without any casualty. Simple building construction projects may not be as important as a large building project involving many more workers and hence complex hierarchy and processes. Whatever the size of the project be, efforts still need to pay attention to the safety of workers.

In carrying out the necessary safety efforts, the company’s management policies should guide the operational procedures i.e. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that must be complied with by all elements of the workers involved.

The Causes of Accidents

In order to anticipate an issue, we must first understand what the source of the problem is or the main cause of accidents. When we realize what the cause is, we can take appropriate measures, substantive, and reliable in solving the problem of workplace accidents.

General workplace accidents can occur due to human factors, equipment used, management, and work sites. Here are summarized the factors that cause accidents into two quantities:

  • Human Factors

This is caused by human error or the fault of the man himself. Here, the human does not meet safety standards due to inattention, careless, drowsiness, fatigue, etc. Research results found that 85% of workplace accidents are caused by human error factor alone. The human factor is caused by the characteristics and qualifications of workers. The system & processes are less capable, the system does not work well for recruitment, giving disproportionate hours, hence workers are prone to fatigue, and lack of supervision of the workers.

  • Environmental Factors

Workplace accidents can also be caused by environmental conditions that are not safe (unsafe conditions) such as slippery floors, poor lighting factor, or even glare, the condition of the machine is open, and so on. The environmental problems need to be anticipated early on, so the solution will be adjusted contextually depending on the condition of each workplace.

Several Ways to Avoid Workplace Accidents

  • Repair Recruitment system

Recruitment is the first gateway that can filter qualified workers and which is not being properly managed currently in most organizations. Therefore, we need to fix the problem of quality recruitment by providing minimum criteria or requirements that must be fulfilled for a construction worker. The minimum requirement can filter out which workers can perform decent work and who cannot, since there are still companies that rely on quantity or number of workers than the quality of performance, thereby leading to more accidents.

  • Clarity of work status

Worker status can influence a person to have the motivation to work, provide psychological comfort for workers. If the workers are experiencing uncertainty, it will degrade their performance and they may not focus on what their work goals are. In contrast, if he is already getting certainty it will make them strive to improve the quality of their performance, and strive to comply with all the rules of the labor supplied by the company.

  • Provide training

Job training is provided so that workers hear, understand, and appreciate every job that must be done with due regard to safety. This training should be able to provide awareness for the workers to always be disciplined and obedient to the SOP that has been made.