Energy Audit

Energy Audit – An Overview

Energy Audit is the first step in Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency Projects for Industrial Plants. Energy Audit is a periodic exercise undertaken by a plant to assess its energy consumption and identify opportunities for Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency. It also helps plant personnel in modernizing the plant with new technological solutions. It benefits plants cut down production costs.

In India, Energy Audit is quite popular in an Industrial or Commercial Facility. Many companies have realized the potential of energy saving in their plant. However one must realize that Energy Audit is only the first step in the direction of energy efficiency and energy conservation. The recommendations made as part of the energy audit have to be implemented to achieve the energy saving targets.

The energy saving recommendations doesn’t require much investment. In some high cases, the investment may be higher. The plant then takes up the investments in a phase-wise manner, which result in delayed energy saving for the plant. In fact the plant may never take some of the recommendations up. This renders the entire energy audit exercise futile.

Energy Audit works for every single Plant or Commercial Facility, as there is always scope for Energy Optimization through Energy Conservation & Energy Efficiency. Every plant goes through some changes over a period of time. Moreover an external Energy Audit team works across departments and brings in rich experience gained from Energy Audit of several plants. This not only results in gaining fresh perspective of Energy saving possibility by an external team also results in bench-marking based on similar parameters.

Energy Audit gives a positive orientation to Preventive Maintenance, Safety and Quality Control programs thereby improving the overall efficiency and output of existing system.

Nearly all the Industrial Units and Commercial Complexes have a potential to save 10-15% on Energy Bills and additional savings in Thermal Energy.

The evident reason why a plant goes for an Energy Audit is the saving of energy. This saving translates into monetary saving and hence can have a direct impact on profitability of a Company. It is also a step towards sustainability.

However, Energy Audits should look at a more comprehensive approach than just reducing cost. Industries should focus more on reducing their carbon footprint as necessitated by Governing Environmental Laws. Energy Audits must go beyond the conventional approach and adopt newer technologies for Green Power Generation.

With increased environmental awareness the pressure on Industries is mounting to reduce their Carbon footprint by adopting Greener Methods wherever possible. In such as scenario Energy Audit would play a crucial role in offering Industries a comprehensive approach towards a Greener Plant.

There is no specific answer as to how much energy a plant could save post an Energy Audit. An estimate could certainly be provided and in all cases Energy Audit could prove to be useful and economically viable. This is especially true in the present day scenario when Energy costs are ever rising and are expected to rise further.

Each Industrial Plant must carry out Energy Audits for reducing their energy usage by adopting energy conservation and energy efficiency measures.

Chemical Engineer in a plant

Why Chemical Industries Need Process Engineers

Large chemical and manufacturing plants convert raw materials into products. This conversion requires meticulously designed processes and systems. That’s where the role of Process Engineers comes into play. These plants employ chemical process engineers to create, modify, and monitor the chemical and biochemical processes used to make these goods. Process engineers choose or develop the materials and manufacturing methods that will convert materials into the desired good. Those final products can include chemicals, fuel, plastics, food and drinks, clean water, and bath and hygiene products etc.

Process engineers do not provide theoretical consultation rather they are involved with the daily operations of a commercial or industrial enterprise.
Process engineers are entirely capable of using their expertise to help companies improve profitability and efficiency. Working with one of these professionals can be a great asset for a business.

Many times production suffers due to inefficiency in the process or systems. Most companies do not know how to deal with it. Process engineers are experts at coming up with solutions to these kinds of problems.

At times product defects may pop up frequently. Such an issue can cause significant damage to a company’s reputation. The knowledge of a process engineer allows him or her to identify the issue causing the defect, allowing them to be rectified. Even if there are currently no problems with a company’s product, any opportunities to enhance overall quality should be taken. A process engineer can take a look at what is being used in production and make suggestions for methods of improvement.

The amount of products a company is physically able to produce in a given period of time is always of concern. In order to increase profitability, process engineers analyze a company’s processes and make recommendations for amplifying their effectiveness. Any major upgrade for a company’s facility must be managed with great care. A process engineer can make suggestions for areas that would result in greatest possible return.

Labor is a significant part of the operation of any large facility; it is also a large expenditure for companies. Fortunately, process engineers are able to analyze how people are working and find ways for them to be more efficient. Process engineers’ skills can be useful in many areas of a company, from material moving to labor to production. All areas have ways, large or small, in which they could be more efficient.

While saving energy is great for helping the natural environment, it also helps out with the monthly costs of running a company. Process engineers have the ability to find areas that can contribute to lowered costs.

If a company is to stay in business for a long period of time, it is crucial that the products it creates are of a consistent quality for its customers. The process control solutions that process engineers can offer are of tremendous assistance in this regard.

Just about every industrial undertaking has some sort of waste in the manufacturing process. A process engineer can find ways in which the waste can be minimized, thereby helping to better control costs.

Many companies work with tight deadlines on a regular basis in order to keep their customers satisfied. By improving the efficiency of daily operations, process engineers make meeting these deadlines a much easier task. Outdated systems need to be replaced. Process engineers can ensure that the right systems are chosen.

In conclusion, Process Engineers are required to overlook every aspect of a chemical or manufacturing plant. Panorama provides skilled process engineering services for Chemical Industries that help build and maintain the plant for increased profitability.

Fire Protection and Safety

Irrespective of its occupancy status, a fire can happen at any time and any place.
Fire has the potential to cause harm to its occupants and severe damage to property. Fire doesn’t only interrupt the whole process of manufacturing and production but also can cause major damage to the building and plant. Much work will be required in order to restore the entire production process.

Successful prevention of fire depends solely on the management who must survey the operation of the business and determine where the loss potential lies.

Inadequately maintained machines can be fire prone. The overheating of bearing, due to insufficient lubrication or the presence of dust, and heat caused by friction are common causes of fire. Frequent inspection and regular maintenance will reduce risk and make the general tidiness of premises easier to achieve.

Major fires start in storage area and warehouses than production areas. Poorly stored goods, even though they are not flammable, may help to spread fire and hinder fire fighters gaining access to the seat of the fire or reduce the effectiveness of sprinkler systems. Goods tidily stored with gangways may help to inhibit the spread of fire.

Fire Safety Audit

Fire has been rated as the 5th largest risk in the Indian Industry. Electrical defaults are the major causes of fire in India. Fire Safety Audit is found to be an effective tool for assessing fire Safety standards of an organization. In other words, it is aimed to assess the building for compliance with the National Building Code of India, relevant Indian Standards and the legislations enacted by State Governments and Local Bodies, on fire prevention, fire protection and life safety measures.

Though fire safety audit is found to be an effective tool for assessing fire safety standards of an occupancy, there is no clear cut provisions in any of the safety legislations in India, regarding the scope, objective, methodology and periodicity of a fire safety audit. Therefore, Fire Safety Audit should be made mandatory for all over India and the work should be entrusted to independent agencies, which have expertise in it. It is reasonable to have a fire safety audit in every year.

Clean agent suppression systems

Clean agent fire suppression systems make the use of inert gases and chemicals in extinguishing a fire.They are also known as gaseous fire suppression. In these systems, fire is suppressed manually or automatically by reducing heat rather than reducing oxygen, reducing fuel or preventing the chain reaction effect of fire. These systems work on a total flooding principle where the agent is applied in a three dimensional method within the enclosed space to deliver a concentrated, highly focused dose of fire suppression.

Clean agent systems are able to suppress fires without causing additional damage unlike water. This drastically reduces the costs incurred for repairs and replacements. This makes these systems the fire suppression systems of choice for commercial and public enterprises that want fast, effective fire suppression that minimizes damage to structures, electronics and other assets.

The agents are non-toxic, they cause no breathing problems for people and won’t obscure vision in an emergency situation.

Automatic Sprinkler Systems

Sprinkler systems are among the most useful tools in firefighting. Automatic sprinklers often are one of the most important fire protection options. The successful application of sprinklers is dependent upon careful design and installation of high quality components by capable engineers and contractors.

A sprinkler system must be installed in compliance with the building’s need. Wet pipe systems offer the greatest degree of reliability and are the most appropriate system type for most heritage fire risks. With the exception of spaces subject to freezing conditions, dry pipe systems do not offer advantages over wet pipe systems in heritage buildings. Preaction sprinkler systems are beneficial in areas of highest water sensitivity. Their success is dependent upon selection of proper suppression and detection components and management’s commitment to properly maintain systems. Water mist represents a very promising alternative to gaseous agent systems.

In India, although there are many rules and regulations, codes and standards related to fire safety they are seldom followed. Laxity in following fire safety measures causes major fires in many buildings. Proper attention must be paid to minimize fire loss because ultimately the community at large has to bear all the losses. There exists large number of different types of firefighting equipment and suppression systems to suit specific requirements. The use of smoke detectors, fire alarms, automatic sprinklers, water mist systems, clean agent suppression system should be encouraged. Above all the success of fire prevention and fire protection mainly depend upon the active co-operation from all personnel.

Process Engineering: An Overview

Process Engineering focuses on design processes, operation, process control, and process optimization. This discipline of engineering may focus on physical, chemical, or biological processes. Process engineering encompasses a large array of different industries and sectors. It has a wide range of applications, considerable potential value, and diverse methods.

Process engineering, as a discipline, can be traced back to the era of the 60s, when the term was first coined. However today, this engineering field has gained popularity across the globe. Numerous companies offer Process Engineering services. It is an active area for research, study and application. Process engineering has effected positive change on a global scale.

Since Process Engineering has a broad range of applications in various industries and sectors, the specifications in analysis varies with each sector. Process engineering have various sub-disciplines. Experts usually specialize in one or two of these sub- disciplines.

Process Design – Process design looks at the way the process in question has been designed and set up. It looks for ways to improve this design and structure, and may utilize hierarchical decomposition flow sheets, attempt superstructure optimization, or study plants with multi-product batches. Poor, inefficient design and structure elements can then be removed and substituted with design components that optimize the system better.

Process Operations – Process operations looks at the way the process in question is being executed. It may incorporate real-time optimization or fault diagnosis in an effort to improve operations efficiency. It may also study the operation’s schedule and examine multi-period planning, and other relevant data.

Process Control – Process control concentrates on the reliability of the process. It often employs tools such as controllability measures, robust control, model predictive control, statistical process control, and process monitoring to name just a few. By improving control over the process more consistent, dependable results are gained.

Supporting Tools – Supporting tools in process engineering focuses on the ancillary tools and systems that help support the primary process. These tools may include things such as equation based process simulation, AI or expert systems, sequential modular simulation, global optimization, large-scale nonlinear programming (NLP), optimization of differential algebraic equations (DAEs), and mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). These supporting tools enhance the overall productivity and quality of the process.

Process engineering is beneficial to industries in various ways. They include everything from debottlenecking certain key problem areas, improving production speed, eliminating unneeded steps from a process, making the process or system safer, and increasing the quality, consistency, and/or volume of output. By and large process engineering provides a way for industries to reduce their costs while increasing the overall efficiency of their processes.

Process engineering has an incredibly far-reaching impact and potentially holds promise for nearly any industrial or commercial business. It is also at the forefront of expanding what is possible in the sciences and technology sectors. Some particular industries served by process engineering include:

  • Chemical
  • Petrochemical
  • Refining
  • Food and food processing
  • Manufacturing
  • Mineral processing
  • Medical
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Bio-techs
  • Biomedical
  • Textiles
  • Transportation

Process engineering is a fast-paced, dynamic discipline that is continually evolving and pushing the envelope of what is possible. Panorama provides a thorough professional service that covers each step of process engineering. With roots in Chemical and Pharmaceutical industry, Panorama provides the best service.

FDA’s role in plant design

If you are involved in any type of manufacturing that is regulated by the FDA, FDA regulatory consulting firms can help you!

FDA consultants (who are all former employees of the FDA or have extensive industry experience) can assist with all phases of the manufacturing process, from single rooms to entire plants, computer systems to manufacturing and processing equipment, design to verifications and validations.

FDA consulting and FDA training services typically include:

  • master and batch record design and reviews
  • specification development (components, in-process, and finished product)
  • supplier audits
  • medical device design history file (21 CFR 820.30)
  • dietary supplements product design
  • equipment verification
  • process validation (prospective validation, retrospective validation, and revalidation)
    • DQ (Design Qualification)
    • IQ (Installation Qualification)
    • OQ (Operational Qualification)
    • PQ (Prospective Qualification)
  • cleaning validation (all industries)
  • GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Points)
  • stability studies
  • clean rooms
  • sterility
  • calibration
  • PM (Preventive Maintenance) and DM (Demand Maintenance)
  • plant design
  • computer system development and validation
    • ERP software (Enterprise Resource Planning)
    • data collection and storage systems
    • production equipment
    • system software for manufactured products


FDA’s role in plant design:

  1. cGMP requirements

    1. Design & Construction features
    2. Lighting
    3. Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling
    4. Plumbing
    5. Sewage & refuse
    6. Washing & Toilet facilities
    7. Sanitation
    8. Maintenance

 

  1. cGMP Coverage of design
    FDA’s Compliance Programs provide instructions to FDA personnel for conducting activities to evaluate industry compliance with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and other laws administered by FDA. Compliance Programs are made available to the public under the Freedom of Information Act.
    Compliance Programs do not create or confer any rights for or on any person and do not operate to bind FDA or the public. An alternative approach may be used as long as the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations. FDA’s Compliance Programs are organized by the following program areas:

    • Biologics (CBER)
    • Bioresearch Monitoring (BIMO)
    • Devices/Radiological Health (CDRH)
    • Drugs (CDER)
    • Food and Cosmetics (CFSAN)
    • Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

 

  1. Facilities & Equipment Systems
    • Cleaning & maintenance
    • Facility layout and air handling systems for prevention of cross-contamination (e.g. Penicillin, beta-lactams, steroids, hormones, cytotoxics, etc.)
    • Specifically designed areas for the manufacturing operations performed by the firm to prevent contamination or mix-ups
    • General air handling systems
    • Control system for implementing changes in the building
    • Lighting, potable water, washing and toilet facilities, sewage and refuse disposal
    • Sanitation of the building, use of rodenticides, fungicides, insecticides, cleaning and
    • Sanitizing agents

 

  1. Preapproval Coverage of Design/Preapproval Inspections/Investigations
    The addition of any new drug to a production environment must be carefully evaluated as to its impact on other products already under production and changes that will be necessary to the building and facility. Construction of new walls, installation of new equipment, and other significant changes must be evaluated for their impact on the overall compliance with GMP requirements.
    For example, new products, such as cephalosporins, would require that the firm demonstrate through appropriate separation and controls that cross-contamination cannot occur with regard to other products being made in the same facility. Also, facilities that may already be operating at full capacity may not have adequate space for additional products


Quality Systems Approach to Pharmaceutical cGMP Regulations

Quality by design means designing and developing a product and associated manufacturing processes that will be used during product development to ensure that the product consistently attains a predefined quality at the end of the manufacturing process.

Quality by design, in conjunction with a quality system, provides a sound framework for the transfer of product knowledge and process understanding from drug development to the commercial manufacturing processes and for post-development changes and optimization.

The CGMP regulations, when viewed in their entirety, incorporate the concept of quality by design. This guidance describes how these elements fit together.

For more information on FDA consulting services for plant design or to schedule a consultation, please contact us.

Pinch analysis & Process integration services

In a highly competitive global economy, maximizing results by eliminating costly inefficiencies is critical.

Chemical & Process Industries in India consume lots of Energy; the primary usage being Heating, Cooling, and Electrical Power.

Traditional attempts to reduce energy only focused on individual piece of equipments & units. Process Integration involves a streamlined & systematic “Total site -as a whole” approach towards use of Heating/Cooling Requirements, electrical power and water. Process Integration ensures maximum advantages by providing alternative designs and structured road maps for long term energy savings.

Though Process Integration covers a wide area, pinch analysis companies & process integration services companies focus mainly in Facilities where Distillation consumes major energy, and where lots of waste energy is available.

Reactions like Nitration, Oxidations and Hydrogenations evolve a lot of heat due to exothermic nature. Typically these reactions, distillation processes or other downstream operations consume considerable amount of heat.

Thus, the concept of having continuous processing of these reactions to utilize the heat evolved in downstream operation integrates the process that can result in significant savings and safe operations.

See how Panorama can help you migrate from batch reactions to continuous ones by piloting the whole process till commercial levels.

Up till now, Process Integration is in use at bigger plants, Panorama’s idea is to make it work in smaller plants as well.

Process Integration Methodology:

  • Generating heat & material balances by optimizing simulation services
  • Performing energy analysis to identify alternatives
  • Make modifications in processing conditions
  • Redesign equipments in the light of above changes.
  • Analyze cost data and finalize proposal.

Waste Heat Recovery Units (WHRU)

The exhaust gas of various processes or even from the exhaust stream of processes & conditioning units generates waste heat which can be used to generate useful heat and reduce fuel consumption.

There are many different commercial recovery units for the transferring of energy from hot medium to cold one:

  • Recuperators
  • Regenerators
  • Heat pipe exchanger
  • Economizers
  • Heat pumps etc

Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

Waste heat of different degrees can be found in final products of certain process or as a by-product in industries like steelmaking plants. Units or devices that could recover the waste heat and transform it into electricity are called CHPs. Such units, for example, use an Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC) with an organic fluid as the working fluid. The fluid has a lower boiling point than water to allow it to boil at low temperature, to for a superheated gas that could drive the blade of a turbine and thus a generator.

Panorama’s offerings

  • Process Integration solutions
  • Energy analysis solutions
  • Batch to Continuous Processing Migration Solutions
  • Waste Heat Recovery -Simple Solutions involving heat recoveries only.
  • Waste Heat Recovery- Comprehensive solutions including CHP (Combined Heat Power)

Panorama maximizes energy efficiency in both initial design and ongoing operations through best practices pinch analysis. Thermal Pinch Analysis & Process Integration is a systematic methodology for determining optimal energy efficiency. In most cases we find millions of dollars of annual operational savings (in facilities more than 15 years old). For Greenfield development we enable process engineers to properly integrate pinch tools into the conceptual process design phase, on which the foundation of the entire lifecycle is built.

For existing facilities, Panorama provides the most effective action plan by understanding complete energy balance for maximum efficiency, identifying suboptimal energy exchange between process streams, and analyzing the most cost effective balance between energy savings and capital expenditure to achieve optimal efficiency.

On short notice, our experts can pull together engineering scopes and feasibility studies to produce ready-to-use initial design work.

Our onsite dedicated teams are available to directly interact with the process specialists, should onsite be preferred to remotely analyzing. Regardless of geography, we use the highest thermodynamic principles to systematically analyze chemical processes and surrounding utility systems.

Panorama’s pinch analysis results in financial savings through better process heat integration.

Process integration in chemical manufacturing & engineering

A popular myth most people aware of Process Integration is that they compare it with the design of heat exchanger networks. As a fact, the design of heat exchanger networks is a part of Process Integration, the entire spectrum of process integration is however far wider.

The sole objective of Process Integration is the design & optimization of integrated chemical manufacturing systems. The execution of Process Integration initiates with the selection of series of processing steps & their interconnection to produce a streamlined manufacturing system which transforms raw materials into desired products.

Process Integration does not stop with the synthesis of process flow sheets for individual processes. Individual processes typically operate as part of an integrated manufacturing unit consisting of a number of processes controlled by a common utility system. Linking processes to the common utility system creates interactions between the different processes through the utility system. If understood properly, these interactions can be used to maximize the performance of the site as a whole. Moreover, to enhance & ensure that maximum efficiency is utilized, the steps taken by individual processes on a site to exchange materials can be customized.

Chemical processing industry is growing alarmingly & is becoming an adherent part of sustainable industrial activity. This means making use of raw materials as efficiently & as economical and practical in order to:

  • Prevent the production of waste than can be harmful to environment
  • Preserve the source of raw materials as much as possible

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Chemical processing tips:

  • Energy should be used efficiently, not only to reduce costs, but to prevent the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels and to preserve the reserves of fossil fuels.
  • Water should be consumed in sustainable quantities that does not cause any deterioration in the quality of the water source or the long-term quantity of the reserves.
  • Aqueous and atmospheric emissions must not be environmental harmful and solid waste to land film must be avoided.
  • Finally, all aspects of industrial activity must feature good health and safety practices.

Process integration is more than just pinch technology & design of heat exchanger networks. It has far wider scope and touches every area of process design. Switched-on industries are making more money from their raw materials & capital assets while becoming cleaner & more sustainable.

Trends in process integration:

Current methods still attempt wherever possible to use a 2-step approach to design. Initially, performance targets are set to scope & screen options. Once these important options have been screened, a design method is used to achieve targets.

In the future, there’s a high probability that the boundary between targets & design will be blurred & these will be based on more structural data regarding process networks.

It is also more likely that we get to see a wider range of applications being used for process integration. There is still immense work to be carried out in the area of separation; not only in complex distillation systems, but also in mixed type of separation systems. The use of process integration techniques for reactor design has seen rapid progress, but still there’s plenty to discover. There’s also a huge demand for process integration being applied to process operations keeping in mind safety & control.

The next trend of software tools for process integration is going to be a big wave in the chemical processing industry. While simulation tools are becoming quite mature & well developed, process integration software so far is just in its infancy stage. Developments in software leading to open-architecture will allow process integration software to interact online with simulation software to access physical property data & simulation models.

Detail Engineering Piping Systems

Detailed engineering for piping systems

Detailed engineering are studies which creates a full defined scope of work for every aspect of project development. It is a multi-step process which includes conceptualization, research, feasibility analogy, establishing design requirements, preliminary design plans, detailed designing, production planning and tool design and finally moving towards actual production. Detail engineering studies are a key component for every project development across Mining, Infrastructure, energy, oil&gas sectors.

Detailed engineering companies have the best technical experts & a wide range of experience across various industries to carry out the tasks of project management at the maximum precision level.
Piping engineering is a specialised branch of detailed engineering dealing with design & layouts of piping network along with the Equipments in a process plant.

The images shown form a fully fledged blue print of a plant & are used for plant construction at site. The most important factors to be considered are:

  • Process requirements
  • Process safety
  • Operability
  • Maintenance
  • Compliance with statutory requirements & economy

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Piping detailed engineering process:

‘Piping’ includes the utility of components such as pipe, valves and fittings. A piping designer or a piping engineering company should be thoroughly acquainted with the equipment, instrumentation and related disciplines. A team of piping detailed engineering consists of Engineers, designers and construction personnel who get together to develop and design piping and instrumentation diagrams also known as P&ID (Process & Instrumentation Diagrams).

However, the process doesn’t stop there, they also make equipment plot plans, define the piping arrangements and make fabrication drawings.
A piping engineering company performs the following processes:

  1. Preparation of plot plan, equipment layouts piping studies, piping specification
  2. Review of process package
  3. Giving inputs to civil, vessel, electrical / instrumentation groups for various purposes

A piping engineering company ideally goes through the following plan of action to initiate the project:

  • Preparation of piping layouts, isometrics, support Drawings
  • Stress analysis
  • Procurement assistance
  • Preparation of drawings for statutory approvals
  • Preview of vendor drawings
  • Coordination with various engineering groups & site

And finally ends with completion & commissioning of plant.

Detail piping engineering: What does it involve?

Detail piping engineering consists of an engineering report for the use of various types of pipes and pumps with pressure drop calculations. It also consists of:

  • Pipes and pumps specifications
  • equipment selection and size
  • instrumentation and process control
  • other piping components such as valves, fittings, piping hangers and supports

Detail piping engineering : How helpful it is to you?

Detail piping engineering focuses on 3 primary pointers:

  • how your piping systems should work;
  • what materials must be used to make the piping structure for the engineering project;
  • select the type of material to be used for certain pipes and piping components

Detailed engineering helps in drafting fabrication and construction specifications. It also helps piping consulting engineers to execute a thermal analysis, vibrating analysis and stress analysis for sound piping layout and implementation.

What is Detailed Design and Engineering

What is Detailed Design and Engineering?

Detailed design and engineering is a process which covers conceptual design, embodiment design and detail design. When performed professionally, the detail design engineering eventually results in a well designed solution.

Phase 1: Conceptual design

Phase One of detailed design and engineering is the conceptual design phase in which drawings are the main output. The drawings produced are often quite simple ideas with little detail, but the aim of the conceptual phase is to commit ideas to paper.

Phase 2: Embodiment phase

The Embodiment phase of the detailed design and engineering process initiates with the concept and blends it into a workable system that can be further developed. During this phase, engineers will typically follow a framework of clarity, simplicity and safety in achieving the design goal.

Phase 3:Detailed design

This is the phase where the design is refined and plans, specifications and estimates are created. Detailed design include outputs such as 2D and 3D models, P & ID’s, cost build up estimates, procurement plans etc. This phase is where the full cost of the project is identified.

Steps covered in detailed design & engineering:

  • Purchasing of equipment, main and bulk.
  • Thermal rating of heat exchangers.
  • Development of Piping and Instrument Diagrams released for construction.
  • Development of detailed piping drawings, including isometrics and stress calculations.
  • Development of detailed drawings related to instrumentation, electrical facilities and civil works.
  • Management of vendor drawings.
  • Cost and schedule control.
  • Start-up procedures.

Importance of Detailed design engineering in India

Over the years Academia and practical application have proven that detailed design and engineering is the key phase in which a project’s costs are defined and set.

The fact that detailed design and engineering process has a strong impact on the overall project cost it is also the stage in which the most cost saving can be made. Equally if the phased process described above is done poorly it can have a major negative impact on the overall project success.
It is truly said that “after all, 70% of a product’s total cost is determined by its design, and that cost includes material, facilities, tooling, labour, and other support costs.”

Success Factors for Detailed design & Engineering:

Often the breadth of scope of a detailed design & engineering project is so vast that no single manager, engineer, operator or scientist has the knowledge to provide the overall detailed design and engineering solution. A high experienced company with top leadership is the key to a successful detailed design & engineering operations. Detailed design ensures that the overall design solution satisfies the projects objective.
Taking a real life scenario, if the goal of a project includes the need to generate energy, a mechanical design engineers input may be to recommend a piston or turbine.

Likewise, An electrical design engineers input is required to generate solar power and a chemical design engineer’s input is required to execute a reaction which would provide exothermic or endothermic energy dependent on the need.

Obviously not all types of energy creation would be suitable for every project. In this example, as in many other instances, it is therefore necessary for all elements of the problem to be considered and the most suitable decided upon during the build up of the detailed design and engineering solution.

For successful detailed design and engineering, there is often the need for someone to take control of the various stakeholders and manage them. Often a project manager will be appointed to bring all the interested parties together and work towards a common goal which will result in a full detailed design and engineering solution.
There are many frameworks that a detailed design & engineering company will adopt in reaching the detailed design and engineering phase of a project. In essence each of them takes the idea or concept that solves a problem from a coarse and rough plan/ design to one that is fine and detailed and solves the problem.

The skill of detailed design is to estimate what it is you think is reasonably required and keep refining to ensure that the plan you settle with fits the bill.

Basic engineering packages

The basic engineering package (BEP) provides necessary information to integrate new units into an existing process.

The simple basis for a basic engineering project is developed in the preceding conceptual design work. The separation process is examined, making use of the available know-how both in-house or on your side, data from data banks, and pilot tests.

Before planning the construction of an industrial plant, a complete engineering study package is needed which consists of several engineering specialties such as:

  • Process description
  • Detailed process flow diagrams
  • P&ID’s, heat and mass, material balance
  • Equipment process specifications & Utility list
  • Process control description
  • Instrument process specifications
  • PSV’s and flare loading specifications
  • Material of construction diagrams
  • Detailed operating instructions

A company implementing BEP adapts the contents of the basic engineering according to the chosen scope of supply, ranging from the delivery of key equipment to the provision of a complete skid-mounted unit.
According to the nature of construction of projects, engineering studies will include all or part of the following steps:

Basic Engineering Design (BED) covering:

It consists of conceptual process studies (material balances, process flowsheets etc) and preliminary plot plan. Basic engineering design documentation covers different operating scenarios in terms of product or capacity variation, feed, offering design solutions for each of the requested cases. It also contains information about all auxiliary facilities essential for the proper operation of the main processing unit, which consists of special loading/unloading systems, waste disposal systems, solvent facilities, regeneration systems, feed preparation facilities, etc.

  • Preliminary Piping and Instrument Diagrams.
  • Process specifications which include defining and sizing of main equipments.
  • Effluents specification.
  • Definition of safety and control devices.
  • All basic studies containing all data needed by a competent contractor company to perform the Detail Engineering.

Front End Engineering Design (FEED) covering:
FEED involves mechanical data sheets of the main equipment, typically initiating from the process specifications issued during the BED phase and incorporating the specific requirements of codes and standards to be applied to the project in question.

  • Thermal rating of heat exchangers.
  • Preparing tender packages for the main equipment.
  • Development of process and utility piping.
  • Developing Instrument Diagrams released for detail engineering.
  • Development of detailed plot plans and hazardous areas.
  • Elaborating of the main piping, instrument, electrical and civil works layouts.
  • All studies to be performed before ordering the main equipment.

Detail Engineering, covering:

  • Purchasing of equipment, main and bulk.
  • Thermal rating of heat exchangers.
  • Development of Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) released for construction.
  • Development of detailed piping drawings, including isometrics and stress calculations.
  • Development of detailed drawings related to instrumentation, electrical facilities and civil works.
  • Management of vendor drawings.
  • Cost and schedule control.
  • Start-up procedures.
  • All studies to be performed before construction of the plant.

Based on research and data collected from our experience, expertise in operation, Panorama’s BEP documentation for industrial units is updated with the latest process improvements. Panorama’s expertise in revamping existing units by finding innovative solutions for modernizing old facilities is well known & appreciated in the industry . Our teams of experts also reconfigure the processing scheme, design & execute unique technologies.